Traditional cotton with dicamba drift injury on one row vs healthy. Photo – Jay Ferrell
The past two months have been life altering for many farmers in the southeast, especially the Florida Panhandle. Hurricane Michael made landfall in the Panhandle on October 10th and left a path of destruction spanning several counties as it continued into Southwest Georgia. With the aftermath of Michael, farmers from Walton to Gadsden counties were left without power and severe damage to crops and equipment.
On October 31st, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced that it was extending the registration of Dicamba for over-the-top (OTT) use for weed control in transgenic cotton and soybean. Dicamba products approved for use on dicamba-tolerant crops include Engenia (BASF), XtendiMax (Monsanto), and FeXapan (Corteva). This announcement came during a period when much of Jackson and Calhoun Counties, a large cotton producing area, wwere without power. The purpose of this article is to help promote the announcement and raise awareness regarding label changes for products approved for use in Dicamba-tolerant cotton and soybean. Another product to follow is chlorpyrifos, better known as Lorsban, which, depending on outcomes of legal/regulatory proceedings, will likely still be available for use during the 2019 season.
Along with the EPA announcement of the two-year extension in registration of dicamba products used in row crops (now through 2020), new restrictions were revealed that will be integrated into product labels. It is imperative that growers read these labels and understand what these changes mean regarding product use. Dicamba is currently registered for OTT use in cotton and soybean in 34 states, including Florida, Georgia, and Alabama.
In 2019, only restricted use pesticide applicators will be allowed to make applications. The purchase and application of dicamba products used on herbicide tolerant crops will not be permitted by those without a pesticide license and the appropriate category, even under the supervision of a licensed applicator. This means that authorized purchasers on an applicators license will no longer be able to purchase the products, only the certified applicatorthemselves. Everyone must now have their own license if they wish to buy or apply these products registered for use on Dicamba-tolerant crops. Depending on their situation, Florida growers will be required to have a Private Applicator or commercial license with the Row Crop category. Obtaining a license means individuals must pass the two necessary pesticide exams with at least a 70 percent, the Core exam and the category exam (Private or Row crop). Exams can be administered at your local Extension Office, but please call ahead to make an appointment. They can also help you decide which license designation (private or commercial) bests applies to your situation. On top of having a restricted use pesticide license, applicators will also be required to attend a 2019 dicamba training, which will be similar to what was provided in March 2018. All individuals who will want to purchase or apply these products (or want the future option) during the 2019 season will need to attend the new dicamba training, regardless of if they attended the one in 2018. A training date has not yet been selected for Florida, but it will likely be a similar timeframe to the 2018 training. Early spring probably around March, using a web format, broadcast from one central location to participating Extension Offices. The date will be announced once the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) has finalized the specifics, stay in contact with your local Extension Office.
The training will address updates to product labels such as the postemergence application window, number of applications, buffer zones, sensitive areas, application hours, record keeping, spray solution pH, and more.
For more information regarding the 2019 dicamba updates, check out the links below:
Registration of Dicamba for Use on Dicamba-Tolerant Crops
EPA Announces Changes To Dicamba Registration
Dicamba: Moving Forward- 7 Label Changes
Since 1965 chlorpyrifos has been used as a pesticide in the agricultural sector. It is commonly used as an insecticide in the production of crops such as corn, peanut, and soybean, among others. It is recognizable to most farmers under the brand name Lorsban. Chlorpyrifos is a cholinesterase inhibitor which can cause problems in people exposed to high enough doses. This means that it can overstimulate the nervous system resulting in symptoms such as nausea, dizziness, and confusion.
Since 2000, the EPA has evaluated and modified the use of chlorpyrifos several times. In 2017, the EPA denied a petition requesting to revoke of all pesticide tolerances (residue level allowed in food) for the chemical and for the cancellation of all chlorpyrifos registrations. On August 9, 2018, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ordered the EPA to ban chlorpyrifos within 60 days. In September the EPA appealed the decision, and the Department of Justice asked the Ninth Circuit to reconsider its opinion. Over 100 days have passed since the ban was requested with the 60-day deadline, and it appears that chlorpyrifos will remain available for use until the legal/regulatory proceedings are finished.
For more information regarding the 2019 use of chlorpyrifos or the EPA’s history regarding this product, check out the links below:
Lorsban should be available for 2019 use, MSU finds
On September 7, 2018, courtesy of Clover Leaf and Sowega Cotton Gins, the Jackson County Extension Office hosted a two-hour meeting for cotton growers. Don Shurley Professor Emeritus of the University of Georgia and John VanSickle with the University of Florida shared pertinent information regarding risk management program decisions, and the upcoming deadlines for cotton growers. This meeting was also web broadcast via Zoom to participating Extension Offices across Florida’s Panhandle in order to increase the number of producers reached. The meeting was recorded live and the labelled presentations are available below for viewing along with their PDF versions.
The first hour consisted of Don Shurley giving an overview of the seed cotton program (specifically in terms of how it works and how prices and payments will be calculated) and then discussing the generic base conversion options. The following was the recorded presentation explaining the Seed Cotton Program provided at this training.
Important date regarding the seed cotton program:
1. December 7, 2018 -enrollment deadline for seed cotton program and make base elections.
Seed Cotton Program Overview Handout used at the meeting
Printer friendly Seed Cotton Presentation
Seed Cotton Program Decision Aid spreadsheet mentioned in the presentation
Dr. Shurely also wrote an article on the Seed Cotton Program: Understanding Your Generic Base Conversion Options with the New Seed Cotton Program
After the farm bill update, Dr. Shurely also briefly covered the Market Facilitation Program (MFP) and what it entails.
Market Facilitation Program (MFP) Handout
During the second hour, John VanSickle discussed the Wildfires and Hurricanes Indemnity Program (WHIP). This program enables the USDA’s Farm Service Agency to make disaster payments to offset losses from hurricanes and wildfires during 2017. WHIP covers both the loss of the crop, tree, bush or vine as well as the loss in production.
Important dates regarding the WHIP program:
1. November 16, 2018- enrollment deadline.
WHIP Program Factsheet
Printer friendly WHIP Presentation
Figure 1. Boron deficient Tifguard, more than 100 days after planting. Field composed of well drained sand in Jackson County. Confirmed by soil and tissue tests.
Authors: Ethan Carter, UF/IFAS Regional Crop IPM Agent, and Michael Mulvaney, UF/IFAS Cropping Systems Specialist (WFREC)
Now that it’s early June, peanut fields across the Panhandle range in age from freshly planted to nearly 40 days after planting. Within the past two weeks, many areas have had consistent rainfall and overcast days. The recent weather has left fields saturated, complicating late plantings and spray applications. It also presents the opportunity to discuss potential issues associated with a nutrient that leaches like boron.
Boron is highly mobile and can rapidly leach from the root zone. Along with manganese, it is one of the most commonly deficient micronutrients on sandy soils. When tissue testing is done to evaluate boron levels, the entire above-ground portion of plants are collected. The desired range is 20-60 ppm, with less than 20 ppm being a critical level for deficiency and 100 ppm or more being a critical level for toxicity. Deficiency can occur when little or no boron is applied with the crop fertilizer. In our region, typically well to excessively-drained sands are most susceptible to boron deficiency. In peanut, boron deficiency is associated with hollow-heart, which lowers grade. This condition presents itself as discoloration within the kernel. However, severe boron deficiency can present itself in a manner similar to zinc toxicity- with split stems and roots, compacted branch terminals, and few developing pods (Figures 1, 2, and 3).
Figure 2. Split stems and roots on Tifguard plants suffering from boron deficiency in Jackson County. Confirmed by soil and tissue tests.
Figure 3. Split branches in Tifguard suffering from boron deficiency in Jackson County. Confirmed by soil and tissue tests.
When these types of symptoms are found, a tissue and soil test are important to determine if the field has issues with either boron or zinc. Boron can be added in with the initial crop fertilizer, or applied with early herbicide and fungicide applications. Foliar applications of 0.5 lb/ac elemental boron can be made during mid-bloom to correct boron deficiency.
Fertility should always be monitored after prolonged rain events or heavy irrigation. Nutrient leaching can result in unexpected field problems. More information regarding boron in peanut can be found in the following articles:
Last year, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered new dicamba herbicide product formulations for making applications to dicamba tolerant cotton and soybean crops. As a result, many states were overwhelmed with drift complaints regarding sensitive crops. This led to the 2018 EPA announcement requiring that anyone who wishes to apply dicamba to dicamba tolerant crops MUST participate in an auxin herbicide training before making applications in 2018.
[warning]This training is required of anyone applying newer dicamba products registered for use on dicamba tolerant cotton and soybeans.[/warning]
Product examples include XtendiMax, Engenia, and FeXapan. Applicators using older dicamba formulations in other crops (corn, forages, small grains, sorghum, and turf) can still apply dicamba products without having this training but thoseproducts CANNOT be used on the dicamba tolerant crops. If you have questions regarding the use of these products or if you need the training, call your local Extension Office before making any applications.
On March 16, Extension Offices from across the state hosted an online two-hour dicamba training, which was broadcasted live from Gainesville. This training was overseen by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS), who determined that the CEU form received from completion of this training would serve as the official documentation of attendance. If applicators desire to use the form for CEUs towards renewal of their pesticide license, they are required to keep an additional copy in their possession as proof of completing the dicamba training.
The training was recorded live and made available to all participating Extension Offices (see below). If you plan to make dicamba applications to dicamba tolerant cotton or soybean, you MUST complete this training before making any applications. The training is not required before planting dicamba genetics, but without the training dicamba cannot be sprayed on the crop. If you plan to spray the crop with dicamba, or want the weed control option later in the season, the training is mandatory.
[important]The recorded training has been made available to all participating Extension Offices. Applicators are required to watch it at the Extension Office, where it can be proctored by an agent who is a certified CEU provider and can issue/sign the CEU form. There are no exceptions, you must watch the training at an Extension Office. In the Panhandle, participating Extension Offices with access to the training include: Calhoun, Escambia, Gadsden, Holmes, Jefferson, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton, and Washington Counties. Contact information for the different offices can be found using the following link: Florida County Extension Offices.[/important]
Ethan Carter, Regional Crop IPM Agent, and Zane Grabau, UF/IFAS Nematologist
Newly registered for Florida, AgLogic 15GG (gypsum formulation) is a granular nematicide available for use in Florida cotton and peanut. The active ingredient in this product is aldicarb, which you may remember was the active ingredient in Temik.
[warning]Producers who plan to utilize this product for the upcoming 2018 crop season are REQUIRED to obtain an aldicarb permit through FDACS PRIOR to any applications being made. A separate permit application is required for each field where aldicarb will be applied.[/warning]
The one page permit application for applying aldicarb in Florida can be downloaded here. Once filled out, the permit application needs to be submitted to Tamara James, FDACS by email or fax (850) 617-7895. The website for submitting applications on the existing Temik page is currently being updated, and will be functioning in the near future.
Aside from the aldicarb permit, producers will also need to be in possession of a restricted use pesticide license, and strictly follow the label instructions for this product. See label for mandatory minimum distances between the nearest well and aldicarb application, as these distances vary based on soil type and well casing.
[important]Grazing restrictions are also associated with this product. Peanut hay and vines cannot be fed to livestock following AgLogic application. [/important]
This granular product should be applied in-furrow at planting, and may be followed by a post-emergence application before peanut pegging or cotton squaring. The post-emergence application must be side-dressed in an open furrow, and immediately covered with soil. Maximum application rates are 7 lbs./acre at planting for both crops, 5 lbs./acre post-emergence for cotton, and 10 lbs./acre post-emergence for peanut.
Submission contact – Tamara James (email) or fax (850) 617-7895