It’s not too late to register for the 2018 Alabama Row Crops Short Course that will be held in Auburn next Thursday, December 13th and Friday December 14th. An event agenda and program updates are available by visiting www.AlabamaCrops.com. Continuing education units and pesticide points will also be available for all attendees. Register online at https://bit.ly/2ObJhYC. There is no registration fee, however, advanced registration is required. Additionally, interested producers may find updates via the Alabama Crops Facebook page or the Alabama Cooperative Extension Facebook page.
Jackson County cotton field with harvested cotton averaging 1800 pounds/acre on the right verses defoliated cotton blown to the ground and destroyed by wind from Hurricane Michael on the left. Credit: Doug Mayo UF/IFAS
Dr. Michael J. Mulvaney and Dr. David L. Wright, Cropping Systems Specialists, UF/IFAS
In response to requests for information about post-hurricane mitigation for producers in the Florida Panhandle, this statement is meant to serve as a starting point for farmers and Extension professionals seeking information about immediate steps to take after hurricane damage to farm operations.
- Document the damage. Timely, good documentation of damage is the first thing needed. Timely photos with timestamps (as soon as it’s safe to do so, before clean-up) of damage to fences, conservation structures, trees/windbreaks, irrigation systems, farm machinery, and equipment, along with estimates of yield loss (compared with historical yields), etc. will be critical for insurance and assistance claims. Yield loss can be documented if any harvest was done prior to the damage, and also attempting to harvest after the damage occurred. An affidavit may be necessary.
- Contact your crop insurance agent. Many cotton fields may be zeroed out while other fields may have enough cotton left to make harvest
- Contact the FSA. Your county Farm Service Agency is your first point of contact for assistance. Since available assistance and programs will vary
by county, your county FSA will have the most up-to-date information available to you in your area. Visit them as soon as possible so that you
know the documentation that will be required for your claims.
- Attend a Disaster Assistance Information Meeting. These are scheduled by the FSA for the following counties:
- Washington County – November 6, 2018, 9-11 a.m.
First Baptist Church Sanctuary
1300 South Blvd, Chipley, FL 32428
- Jackson County – November 6, 2018, 2-4 p.m.
Jackson County Extension Office
2741 Penn Ave., Marianna, FL 32448
- Calhoun County – November 7, 2018, 9-11 a.m.
Rivertown Community Church Sanctuary
19359 SR 71 North, Blountstown, Florida 32424
- Gadsden County – November 7, 2018, 2-4 p.m.
FAMU Research and Extension Center
4259 Bainbridge Highway, Quincy, Florida 32352
Disaster assistance programs can be found here:
A simple tool to find which programs apply to you can be found here:
Dan Anco & Kendall Kirk, Clemson, Ian Small, & David Wright, UF/IFAS
Figure 1. 2018 Peanut digging underway. Photo credit: David Wright
When it comes time to dig peanuts at the end of the growing season, many things influence how many pods make it into the basket. Research by Dan Anco and collaborators has documented two things which can decrease yield, over maturity and disease. Though slightly different, both have the potential to weaken pegs and increase pod loss, and both can be influenced by late season rains and delayed field access. In the past, Virginia type peanuts have characteristically exhibited more of a tendency for pod loss due to over maturity than runner varieties. The same appears to be the case when looking at losses due to late or early leaf spot diseases. While late and early leaf spot have some differences, they both cause lesions and can defoliate canopies.
Figure 2. Leaf spot defoliation. Credit: Ian Small, UF/IFAS
To reevaluate the role of leaf spot diseases and yield loss, researchers at the University of Florida teamed up with scientists across the southeast and in the Virginia-Carolina regions to pool together data and conditions from many years to look at two common questions: How much loss occurs with different amounts of leaf spot infection?, and Is there a disease threshold where we might consider digging a field early?
Each situation can be somewhat unique, but based on their research, the team was able to develop some rough rules of thumb. Mature runner type losses became significant after approximately 30% of the canopy was defoliated due to disease, whereas mature Virginia type losses became significant when 25% or more of the canopy was shed. For the second question, if a field is not yet at optimal maturity, it appears that when Virginia types pass 40% defoliation, they generally tend to increase losses (due to defoliation) faster than maturity is improving or yield is increasing in an otherwise healthy field. While it doesn’t look pretty, runner types appear to be able to sustain up to 50% defoliation while waiting on optimal maturity before losses increase more than the yield gains from additional maturity. In other words, if the crop is not mature there is a critical threshold (40% for Virginia types and 50% for runner types) where yield losses due to defoliation will outweigh any further improvement in maturity.
As a reminder, if you are thinking about making a fungicide application to prevent end of season defoliation, and to help maintain the integrity of stems and pegs, be sure to check the preharvest interval (PHI) on the label of any fungicide you are considering to apply. Do not apply the fungicide if you are not able to wait until after the PHI has passed to harvest.
Digger operation and setup is important during every harvest, but is particularly important if field conditions include sizeable leaf spot defoliation or over maturity. In another set of studies, we have seen above ground digging losses to be significantly impacted by conveyor speed. To assist with digger conveyor speed setup, a calculator is available at the link below.
List of the key collaborators from the Southeast and Virginia-Carolina regions that were involved in this project:
Dan Anco1, James Thomas1, Barbara Shew2, David Jordan3, Albert Culbreath4, Walter Monfort5, Hillary Mehl6, Nicholas Dufault7, Barry Tillman8, David Wright9, Ian Small9, Austin Hagan10, Howard Campbell10
1Clemson University, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Edisto Research and Education Center, 64 Research Road, Blackville, SC 29817, USA; 2North Carolina State University, Department of Plant Pathology, 112 Derieux Place, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA; 3North Carolina State University, 100 Derieux Place, Department of Crop Science, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA; 4University of Georgia, Department of Plant Pathology, 2360 Rainwater Road, Tifton, GA 31793, USA; 5University of Georgia, Department of Crop & Soil Sciences, 2360 Rainwater Road, Tifton, GA 31793, USA; 6Virginia Tech, Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center, 6321 Holland Road, Suffolk, VA 23437, USA; 7University of Florida, Department of Plant Pathology, 2550 Hull Road, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; 8University of Florida, North Florida Research and Education Center, 3925 Highway 71, Marianna, FL 32446, USA; 9University of Florida, North Florida Research and Education Center, 155 Research Road, Quincy, FL 32351, USA; 10Auburn University, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, 149 ALFA Building, Auburn Univ, AL 36849, USA
Cotton laid down in the field by Tropical Storm Gordon.
For most row crop growers in Florida, Tropical Storm Gordon had minimal impact. However, in the westernmost part of the state, much of the cotton suffered significant damage. Though the winds were not extremely strong, the combination of saturated soils and winds wreaked havoc on what had looked like a stellar cotton crop.
The western Panhandle had been blessed with ample rains throughout the summer. Prior to T.S. Gordon making landfall on September 3, many farmers were excited about the prospective yields for their 2018 cotton crop. In northern Escambia County, farmers reported rainfall ranging from 7-11 inches. Though the area did not receive a long period of high winds, the combination of waterlogged soils and wind caused a great deal of lodging in cotton that was nearing full maturity almost ready to be defoliated. Canopies heavy with loaded bolls and wet leaves laid down on damp soil and have not since righted their position. The bolls touching wet ground have rotted off the plant. The plants are matted throughout the field. Many farmers have shared their concerns with the difficulty of defoliating a field that has cotton laying across the row middles.
Though the winds from T.S. Gordon died down within 24 hours, the rains continued. It has continued to rain regularly since September 3rd. Not only is the cotton worse for wear, but peanut harvest has been steadily delayed by the rains. Greg Phillips, manager of Birdsong Peanuts-McCullough, said “Peanut harvest in the area has been greatly slowed by the rain.” He estimates that around 7% of the entire crop has been harvested, whereas if the weather conditions had been favorable, 15% of the year’s crop would been harvested by this time. He does report good grades so far, but he is concerned that further delays might cause a decline in both yield and grades.
The Agroclimate image below shows the total rainfall in inches from August 13th to September 25th. It is evident that the western Panhandle and Lower Alabama have received ample amounts of rain, but the story that it doesn’t tell is that all of this rainfall is coming at a time of year when conditions are generally starting to dry out for harvesting.
The image below from Agroclimate provides a good comparison of rainfall totals from the past 45 days to September 25. The map of the southeast on the left shows the historical average rainfall for this time of year The more colorful map of the southeast on the right shows the deviation from “normal” rainfall amounts. In the case of late summer 2018, T.S. Gordon brought in much higher than average rainfall in the areas shaded in blue and purple.
It will take some time to know the full extent of the impact from T.S. Gordon. Crop damage appears significant, but the full effects will not be known until after the completion of the 2018 crop harvest.
Donate jars of unopened peanut butter to your County Extension Office for delivery to local food pantries. Paul Davis, 4-H youth development agent, and Julie McConnell, horticulture agent, both with UF/IFAS Extension Bay County, stand next to their 2016 peanut butter donations.
If you want to help feeding hungry people in Florida’s Panhandle this year, you can donate peanut butter during the annual Peanut Butter Challenge, coordinated by UF/IFAS Extension.
Thanks to a partnership of UF/IFAS Extension and the Florida Peanut Producers Association, food pantries from Pensacola to Monticello will receive thousands of jars of donated peanut butter this December.
From October 1 through November 21, you can donate unopened jars of peanut butter to your local UF/IFAS Extension county office, and other drop off points in each participating county.
Since 2012, the volunteers and UF/IFAS Extension faculty have collected jars of peanut butter from residents, volunteer groups, and businesses in 16 northwest Florida counties. “Last year, UF/IFAS Extension county offices received 6,222 jars of peanut butter,” said Libbie Johnson, agricultural agent for UF/IFAS Extension Escambia County and co-organizer of the Challenge.
“In addition to these donations, the Florida Peanut Producers Association also contributes, supplying more than 3,000 jars each Challenge,” Johnson said.
“The Peanut Butter Challenge not only raises awareness about the important contribution of North Florida’s peanut growers to the state’s peanut industry, but also helps provide a healthy, locally produced product to food-insecure families in Northwest Florida,” Johnson said.
Check out the YouTube video produced to share the importance of this nutritious food for local food pantries.
With peanut harvest in full swing in the Panhandle (between showers that is), I thought this would be the perfect week to share a video produced by American Farm Bureau to teach students about agricultural careers. The video, called “America’s Peanut Farmers: Sustainability,” is part of the My American Farm website with resources for school teachers. Use the link below to view the video:
If you enjoyed this video, you might want to check out the featured videos from previous weeks: Friday Features
If you come across an interesting or humorous video, or a new product innovation related to agriculture, please send in a link, so we can share it with our readers. Send video links to: Doug Mayo