Friday Feature:  Farm Bureau’s This Farm CARES Program

Friday Feature: Farm Bureau’s This Farm CARES Program

This week’s video was produced by Florida Farm Bureau to showcase their “This Farm CARES” program.  CARES is an acronym for the County Alliance for Responsible Environmental Stewardship Program.  This recognition is given out to Florida farmers who are doing an outstanding job implementing Best Management Practices (BMPs) to protect water quality and conserve natural resources.

Since 2001, the Florida Farm Bureau Federation has recognized nearly 800 Florida farm families throughout the state for their commitment to protecting natural resources through the CARES program. CARES, also known as the County Alliance for Responsible Environmental Stewardship, not only honors our farmers/ranchers through public recognitions but also through consumer outreach and education to teach all Floridians how farmers/ranchers protect the environment every single day. Caring is their calling and Farm Bureau is proud to tell their story! #ThisFarmCARES

Florida Farm Bureau Federation’s CARES Program from the Florida Farm Bureau Federation.

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If you enjoyed this video, you might want to check out the featured videos from previous weeks:  Friday Features

If you come across an interesting or humorous video, or a new product innovation related to agriculture, please send in a link, so we can share it with our readers. Send video links to:  Doug Mayo

 

Gadsden County Certified Pile Burner Course – December 10

Gadsden County Certified Pile Burner Course – December 10

In response to the large amount of storm debris from Hurricane Michael, the Florida Forest Service and the University of Florida Gadsden County Extension Service will be offering a Certified Pile Burner Course in Quincy, Florida. Normally this course includes a $50 per person registration fee, but the fee has been waived to assist with storm recovery.  For the next several months, because of the risk of wildfires and the challenge of private property access, only certified pile burners will be issued commercial permits in the primary impact region of Hurricane Michael.

Monday, December 10, 2018

Class size will be limited, so register early.  This course will show you how to burn piles legally, safely, and efficiently. This training will be held from 8:30 am till 4:30 pm at the North Florida Research & Education Center, 155 Research Rd, Quincy, Florida.

There will be a test at the end of the session. You must receive a grade of 70% or higher on the exam to pass the course.  After passing the course, you will need to demonstrate a proper pile burn with approval from your local Florida Forest Service (FFS) office to become certified.

Florida’s Certified Pile Burner Training Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Why should I be a certified pile burner?
A: Certified pile burners are trained to burn piles legally, safely and efficiently. Most importantly, it could save a life. Also, when the weather is dry, certified pile burners will receive priority for authorization to burn by the Florida Forest Service (FFS). Also, certified pile burners are allowed to burn up to two hours longer per day and get multiple day authorizations.

Q: What is a Pile Burner Customer Number?
A: When you call the FFS for an authorization to burn, you will be assigned a personal customer number.  This number references your information, so it doesn’t need to be gathered each time you call for an authorization. You must have your individual FFS customer number in order to be certified.

Q: Is there a test?
A: Yes, the test is 20 questions and open-book. You must receive a score of at least 70% to pass.

Q: What if I don’t pass?
A: Very few people fail the test but if you do, you will be provided another opportunity to take the test at a later date. If you fail the second time, you must re-register and take the training again.

Q: Why do you ask for my email on the application form?
A: Email is the fastest and most convenient method to inform registrants of their registration status. If no email address is provided, then all correspondence will be sent through the federal mail. This can take several days to relay messages, and this may not be practical if changes are made to the course schedule or for last minute registrations.

Q: Is there a cost for the training?
A: No. This is a special class in response to Hurricane Michael, the traditional $50 fee has been waived for these courses.

Q: How long does my certification last, and how long do I have to complete the certification from the time I finish the class?
A: As long as the person with the certification uses their number at least 5 times in a period of 5 years their certification will not expire under the current program. You MUST complete the certification burn within a year of taking the class.

Q: Will certified burners be notified if their certification expires?
A: Yes, notification will be sent out to them to let them know of their upcoming certification expiration date.

Q: Will I be certified at the end of the one-day training?
A: No, you will need to follow the written instructions that you will receive from the FFS to become certified. You will need to complete a simple burn plan, have it reviewed and approved locally by the FFS and also have the burn itself reviewed and approved by the FFS.

Q: Is there a minimum age to be a certified pile burner?
A: Yes, you must be at least 18 years old to take the test and be a certified pile burner.

Quincy Pile Burner Certification Course Registration Packet

 

For more information, contact: 

Florida Forest Service
Sabrina Willey
850-681-5900
Sabrina.Willey@FreshFromFlorida.com

Benefits of Nematodes in Healthy Soil Ecosystems

Benefits of Nematodes in Healthy Soil Ecosystems

The Steinernema scapterisci insect-parasitic nematode in the juvenile phase can infect and kill insects in the Orthoptera order, such as grasshoppers and crickets. Photo by David Cappaert, Bugwood.org.

The Steinernema scapterisci insect-parasitic nematode in the juvenile phase can infect and kill insects in the Orthoptera order, such as grasshoppers and crickets. Photo by David Cappaert, Bugwood.org.

Nematodes. Those microscopic, worm-like creatures that enter or attach themselves to crop roots, pierce root tissue, suck up root juices, and destroy crop yields.

Roots of a pepper plant infected by southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) have extensive gall damage. Photo by Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org.

Roots of a pepper plant infected by southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) have extensive gall damage. Photo by Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org.

But did you know, plant-parasitic nematodes are only a very small fraction of the nematodes living in your soil? And did you know most nematodes are harmless to crops – and many are even beneficial?

Although the threat of plant-parasitic nematodes damaging your crops is a concern, if a few important agricultural principles are followed – such as carefully designed crop rotations and building soil organic matter content – nematode-induced yield losses can be drastically reduced, while supporting nematode populations that will actually benefit your crops.

Nematodes are most abundant in the upper-most soil horizons, where up to 10 million individual nematodes can live per 10 square feet of soil. They subsist mostly in water-filled pore space near organic matter and plant roots.

Because of the havoc they can cause, plant parasitic nematodes, such as root-knot nematodes, have been the species most widely studied by scientists. But there are many other types of nematodes less studied, generally classified by their mouthparts and diet. Some strictly feed on either fungi or bacteria, while others are predatory, relying on other nematodes or protozoa for their diet; and others are omnivorous, able to feed on fungi and bacteria when their preferred prey is scarce, or conditions are unfavorable.

Light tillage, especially coupled with soil conservation practices and use of cover crops, can increase organic residue decomposition by bacteria and bacterial feeding nematodes, leading to more plant available nutrients for the season. Photo by Anthony LeBude, NC State University, Bugwood.org.

Light tillage, especially coupled with soil conservation practices and use of cover crops, can increase organic residue decomposition by bacteria and bacterial feeding nematodes, leading to more plant available nutrients for the season. Photo by Anthony LeBude, NC State University, Bugwood.org.

Different types of nematodes play different roles in a soil system. In row crop systems, maintaining a diversified food web through soil conservation and organic matter additions can support nematode populations that actually enhance nutrient mineralization and plant nutrient availability. This is especially beneficial in farming systems reliant on organic nutrient sources, as bacterial feeding nematodes consume nitrogen-containing bacteria and release excess nitrogen as plant available ammonium (NH4+). Nematodes can also rejuvenate old bacterial and fungal colonies and spread these microorganisms into organic residues whose nutrients may otherwise remain immobile and unavailable to plants.

Although overly intensive tillage can disturb the soil food web, properly managed tillage can actually promote healthy soil ecosystems. Light soil disturbances – especially coupled with compost and manure additions – increase the availability of organic residues to be consumed by bacteria, which in turn stimulate bacterial feeding nematodes, leading to a net increase of available nitrogen for plant uptake. And although fungal feeding nematodes are more abundant in no-till and perennial agricultural systems, bacterial feeding nematodes are better at releasing plant available nitrogen than their fungal feeding counterparts.

Thousands of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora insect-parasitic nematodes emerging out of a wax moth cadaver, ready for use as a biological control to protect crops from pests such as weevils, beetles, and flies. Photo by Peggy Greb, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org.

Thousands of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora insect-parasitic nematodes emerging out of a wax moth cadaver, ready for use as a biological control to protect crops from pests such as weevils, beetles, and flies. Photo by Peggy Greb, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org.

Another type of nematode that can be beneficial to farming systems is the insect-parasitic bacterial feeding nematode. These nematodes, such as the species Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema scapterisci, have mutualistic relationships with bacteria, in that both the nematode and bacteria rely on one another to reproduce and grow. In their infective juvenile stage, these specialized nematodes carry within their intestines specific bacteria. The nematodes can penetrate the body of many insect hosts, such as cutworms, mole crickets, citrus weevils, sawfly and fungus gnat larvae, and many more depending on nematode species, and release the bacteria into the insect’s body cavity where it multiplies to the point of killing the insect. This allows the nematode to develop into an adult inside the insect’s body and reproduce new juveniles, which emerge from the cadaver to search for a new host. Thousands of nematodes can be produced from just one infected insect host. These types of nematodes are even available commercially as a biological insect control, most commonly applied to moistened fields as liquid suspensions at a rate of about one million per acre, depending on the crop. As they are living organisms, care must be taken not to kill the nematodes with excessive pressure, temperature, agitation, or sun exposure. It is also important to select the correct nematode species to match target insect pests.

A white grub larva infected by a Heterorhabditis bacteriophora insect-parasitic nematode next to two healthy white grub larvae for comparison. Photo by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org.

A white grub larva infected by a Heterorhabditis bacteriophora insect-parasitic nematode next to two healthy white grub larvae for comparison. Photo by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org.

Predatory nematodes have biological control capabilities as well, in that they can regulate populations of other nematodes – bacterial and fungal feeding – and most importantly, root-eating plant parasitic nematodes. And as part of any healthy soil food web, there are a wide variety of natural enemies that help keep in check nematode populations, such as predatory micro-arthropods and nematode ensnaring fungi. Agricultural systems designed to support a healthy soil ecosystem can therefore more successfully defend against plant parasitic nematodes and other crop diseases and pests. They can also facilitate enhanced nutrient cycling, which supports plant nutrient uptake, leading to overall healthy crop growth.

Hurricane Impacted Timberlands – Availble Resources

Hurricane Impacted Timberlands – Availble Resources

 

A track of mature loblolly pines in Washington County severely effected by hurricane Michael.  Photo Credit: Mark Mauldin

Hurricane Michael was particularly devastating to the timber industry in the Central Panhandle. The Florida Forest Service has released a report quantifying the extent of the damage. As we move from emergency response, towards recovery there are a variety of resources available to help landowners.

There are federal programs available to provide financial assistance with tasks like debris removal. (Follow the link for more information on the federal programs currently available.)

The Florida Forest Service and the Florida Forestry Association have both complied resources to help landowners begin to move through this challenging time. Perhaps the most sought after resource right now is contact information for loggers and consultants. This information is available through the FFS Vendor Database and the FFA Master Logger Contact List.

UF/IFAS Extension has released a new publication, Assessment and Management of Hurricane Damaged Timberland, to assist timberland owners navigate the plethora of post-storm challenges they are facing.

Hurricane Michael left the area with an incredible number of downed trees. All of these trees are now potential fuel for wildfires. In areas, estimates are as high as 100 tons of available fuel per acre. As time passes and the fuel dries the risk of devastating wildfires increases. To help prevent wildfires there is a complete burn ban in effect for Bay, Calhoun, Gadsden, Gulf, and Jackson Counties. In other counties burning is only permissible with a Burn Authorization from the Florida Forest Service. Do Not burn without an authorization – it is unsafe and irresponsible. Throughout the impacted area, even after the burn bans are lifted, burn authorizations will be issued on a very limited basis; possibly only to certified burners. In an effort to increase the number of certified burners in the impacted area the FFS is offering two Certified Pile Burner Courses. Courses will be held at the UF/IFAS Extension Office in Marianna on November 27 & 28. Contact your county forester to register for the courses.

There is a complete burn ban in place for the 5 counties shown in orange.  Source: Florida Forest Service

Friday Feature:  Corn that Acquires Its Own Nitrogen

Friday Feature: Corn that Acquires Its Own Nitrogen

This week’s featured video was published by the University of California – Davis to share the results of a remarkable scientific discovery.  Researchers from UC Davis, the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and Mars, Incorporated have identified a native variety of Mexican corn that can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, instead of relying totally on synthetic fertilizers.

A public-private collaboration of researchers have identified varieties of tropical corn from Mexico, that can acquire a significant amount of the nitrogen they need from the air by cooperating with bacteria.  To do so, the corn secretes copious globs of mucus-like gel out of arrays of aerial roots along its stalk. This gel harbors bacteria that convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form usable by the plant, a process called nitrogen fixation. The corn can acquire 30 to 80 percent of its nitrogen in this way, but the effectiveness depends on environmental factors like humidity and rain.  Scientists have long sought corn that could fix nitrogen, with the goal of reducing the crop’s high demand for artificial fertilizers, which are energy intensive, expensive and polluting. Further research is required to determine if the trait can be bred into commercial cultivars of corn, the world’s most productive cereal crop.  Source: Corn that acquires its own nitrogen identified, reducing need for fertilizer

Thanks to Judy Biss, UF/IFAS Extension Calhoun County, for sending in this video to share.

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If you enjoyed this video, you might want to check out the featured videos from previous weeks:  Friday Features

If you come across an interesting or humorous video, or a new product innovation related to agriculture, please send in a link, so we can share it with our readers. Send video links to:  Doug Mayo

 

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Control Using Natural Enemies

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Control Using Natural Enemies

A few weeks ago I was lucky enough to attend North Carolina State’s Tomato Field Day, at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center in Mills River, NC.  Every summer crowds flock from all over the Southeast to learn what’s new in the world of tomatoes.  Since it’s not always convenient for you to drop what you’re doing to make a road trip to North Carolina, I’ll highlight something I learned from the field day.

Stink Bug Control by Dr. Jim Walgenbach

Distribution

The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) was introduced into the United States from Asia.  The insect pest was first found in Pennsylvania and is suspected to have made its way to the US in packing material.  BMSB was first reported in 2009 in Hillsborough County, FL and since been found in additional Florida counties.  It has a wide host range including fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals.

Fifth instar nymph of the brown marmorated stink bug

Fifth instar nymph of the brown marmorated stink bug on raspberry in Allentown, Pennsylvania.  Photo Credit: Gary Bernon, USDA-APHIS

Identification

BMSB has a typical stink bug body shape and size with a mottled brown coloring.  The key identification feature is alternating dark and light bands on the last two antennal segments.

Trissolcus japonicus adults.

Trissolcus japonicus adults. Female to the left; male to the right. Photo Credit: FDACS – DPI

Biological Control with Natural Enemies

Dr. Walgenbach’s team is currently researching the impact of suppressing BMSB populations by native predators such as: katydids; jumping spiders; earwigs; and lady beetles.  Current observations indicate only a minor effect from these predators on BMSB.

Parasitized BMSB

BMSB egg masses parasitized by T. japonicus. Photo Credit: Matt Lollar, University of Florida/IFAS Extension.

Trissolcus japonicus Assessment

A regional effort has been implemented to monitor the introduction, spread, and efficacy of the Asian parasitoid Trissolcus japonicus.  Trissolcus japonicus is a tiny wasp that parasitizes the eggs of various stink bug species.  It was first collected from China and brought back to quarantine facilities in the US for evaluation, as a potential biological control agent.  Host-specific tests have indicated that T. japonicus prefers to parasitize BMSB eggs over eggs of other stink bug species.  It is suspected that release permits for the wasp will be available from the USDA in the near future.

Reporting in Florida

The brown marmorated stink bug overwinters in homes to keep warm.  If stink bugs are found in yuor home, they may be the BMSB and should be reported to the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry.  Specimens should be collected for identification.

To follow the research of Dr. Walgenbach and his colleagues, please visit NC State’s Entomology webpage.