Brown-eyed Susan makes a nice addition to a pollinator garden. This one is visited by a scoliid wasp, a parasitoid of soil-inhabiting scarab beetle larvae. Photo credit: Mary Salinas, UF/IFAS Extension.
Black-eyed Susan, Rudbeckia hirta, has been a very popular garden perennial for generations. Fewer gardeners have experience with, or even heard of its’ close relative, brown-eyed Susan, Rudbeckia triloba. So, what is the difference between them?
- Brown-eyed Susan has more numerous flowers and generally flowers for a longer period in spring, summer, and fall.
- Black-eyed Susan has bigger flowers and bigger leaves.
- Both species are perennial, but the brown-eyed Susan tends to die out sooner after a few years. The good news is that both readily spread through seed to replace older plants.
Brown-eyed Susan. Photo credit: Mary Salinas, UF/IFAS Extension.
Brown-eyed Susan is native to the eastern and central United States and, although native to Florida, it has only been vouchered in the wild in 5 counties in Florida. Gardeners can find seed and plants readily online and at a few native plant nurseries. It is best to try to source wildflower seed from plants grown in the same region. Brown-eyed Susan seed from plants grown in Nebraska or Michigan may not be as well adapted to the Florida environment as locally grown seed.
If you want to add this pollinator attracting perennial to your garden, choose a spot that is sunny or partly sunny. Although it prefers moist soil, brown eyed Susan adapts to most soil types and is drought tolerant after establishment.
Crapemyrtle bark scale are often found in branch crotches and wounds to the bark. Photo credit: Gary Knox, UF/IFAS.
There is a new pest in the western panhandle of Florida. Crapemyrtle bark scale (CMBS) is a scale that is found on the trunks, branches, and twigs of crapemyrtle. It is the only known scale insect found on the bark of crapemyrtle. There are other scales that occur on the leaves.
When scouting for this pest, look for very small (2 mm or 0.08 inch) white or light gray spots on the bark of crapemyrtle. The adult females do not ever move once they have found a place to feed and reproduce. Under her protective covering, she lays eggs that hatch into ‘crawlers’ that then crawl away to find their own spot to settle down. When squished, they exude a pink goo (the eggs or newly hatched crawlers). Males are winged and travel to find their mates. See this comprehensive information on their interesting biology.
While the scale does not outright kill the trees, it lessens their landscape value and can reduce flowering. And like other scale, CMBS secretes lots of honeydew; black sooty mold then feeds and grows on the honeydew. The black sooty mold does not harm the plants directly, but it is unsightly and can interfere with photosynthesis if present on the leaves.
Crapemyrtle bark scale are white to gray and ooze pink when squished. Photo credit: Gary Knox, UF/IFAS. ,
Unfortunately, CMBS has also been found on a very popular native bush, American beautyberry, Callicarpa americana, and it is yet unknown whether CMBS will expand its host range to other plant species in our country. In Asia, this pest has been found on some economically important crops like pomegranate and persimmon.
CMBS is a tough insect to control. And it is best left to the professionals. Dr. Adam Dale, an entomologist at the University of Florida, recommends using pyriproxyfen (in the product Distance) or buprofezin (in the product Talus). These are insect growth regulators that have shown to provide great control of CMBS and other similar scale insects on trees and other woody plants. Although these products are not systemic, they are translaminar, which helps increase their control and reduce any non-target effects on beneficial insects like bees. Two applications 7–14 days apart are suggested. However, these products can only be applied by licensed pest control applicators.
Severe infestation of crapemyrtle bark scale and sooty black mold. Photo credit: Gary Knox, UF/IFAS.
Systemic insecticide drenches are effective but pose a dangerous hazard to bees and other pollinators as the poison also gets into the flower nectar. The product labels prohibit application of these type of products to flowering plants for that very reason.
Routine close inspection of your crapemyrtle trees is critical for CMBS control. Early treatment will help prevent heavy infestations as seen in some of the photographs. When pruning your crapemyrtles, thoroughly clean your tools between plants to prevent any accidental spread.
Prevent this scale from coming into your landscape in the first place. Inspect all new plants you are considering adding to your landscape for any sign of CMBS or other insect or disease presence.
If you have any questions on making the correct identification of CMBS, or any other insect, contact your county extension office.
Lastly, consider reporting the presence of this new scale to enable researchers to track its spread.
For more information:
Stop CMBS Website
UF/IFAS Featured Creatures: crapemyrtle bark scale
Worm mounds in bermudagrass. Photo credit Mary Salinas, UF IFAS Extension.
The April 8 program of Gardening in the Panhandle LIVE! was focused on turfgrass, quite a popular topic in the springtime as the weather warms and turf comes out of winter dormancy. Here are some of the questions asked of our University of Florida experts and the links to resources they shared.
To start with, two sites that have comprehensive information are Your Florida Lawn: http://hort.ufl.edu/yourfloridalawn/ and Gardening Solutions: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/
Q. What’s the answer to “I want a lawn like I had up north”? Remotely possible?
A. You can have a nice lawn, but it is going to be different in the panhandle. Don’t expect the same grass species or maintenance.
Q. What grass species is recommended for winter overseeding, and when should the grass be sown?
A. Overseeding has its problems and generally not recommended as it shades out the warm season turf as it is coming out of dormancy in the spring. Overseeding Florida Lawns for Winter Color: https://sfyl.ifas.ufl.edu/archive/hot_topics/lawn_and_garden/overseeding_winter_lawns.shtml
Q. How well do new turfgrass varieties thrive against weeds?
A. A healthy and properly maintained lawn is your best defense against weeds and other pests. Additionally, ProVista is a new cultivar of St Augustinegrass that can tolerate glyphosate so it makes it much easier to kill weeds in the lawn. ProVista is not yet widely available in the panhandle.
Q. How do I get a lawn started?
A. Preparing to Plant a Florida Lawn: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/lh012
Establishing a Florida Lawn: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_establishment
Q. Can I have a native lawn? What are some recommended alternatives to a turf lawn?
A. Opinions are divided as to whether St. Augustinegrass is native. See these links for lawn Alternatives: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/lawns/turf-types/alternatives-to-turfgrass.html
Fertilizing & Weed Control
Q. How long should I wait before fertilizing new sod?
A. Wait 30-60 days before applying fertilizer. See: Homeowner Best Management Practices for the Home Lawn: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep236
Q. Basic fertilizer for most lawns if no other information is available.
Q. Are weed and feed products effective? Can you use a Weed & Feed like Scott’s Bonus S this late in the year?
A. Weed and feed products are not recommended.
Weed & Feed, Not Foolproof: https://ocmga.wordpress.com/2013/03/11/weed-and-feed-not-foolproof-by-larry-williams-ufifas-extension-agent/
Weed Management Guide for Florida Lawns: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep141
Lawn Maintenance & Renovation
Q. My husband overwaters the lawn. Remind everyone about correct watering.
A. Homeowner Best Management Practices for the Home Lawn: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep236
Watering Your Florida Lawn: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/lh025
Sprinkler calibration: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/care/irrigation/calibrating-your-irrigation-system.html
Q. What to do about bare spots in St Augustine turf in shade?
A. Rough up the ground and put ½ to 1” compost and let the grass fill in or plant plugs. St. Augustinegrass for Florida Lawns: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/lh010
Q. When is the best time to overseed? I have a centipede lawn that’s 15-16 years old and I’m trying to bring it back to health.
A. Be sure to be following good practices and centipedegrass should not fail. Overseeding may not be the best option. Centipedegrass for Florida Lawns: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/lh009
Q. How do I repair lawn areas ruined by piled up Hurricane Sally debris?
A. Homeowner Best Management Practices for the Home Lawn: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep236
Q. How do I care for a zoysiagrass lawn?
A. Zoysiagrass for Florida Lawns: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/lh011
Q. Should I mulch or bag clippings?
A. Unless you have disease or weed seeds, mulch the clippings onto the turf so you can return the nutrients and water into the soil. Mowing Your Florida Lawn: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/lawns/lawn-care/mowing-your-florida-lawn.html
Q. When is the best time to put out a pre-emergence treatment to control and prevent weeds in your lawn (warm and cool season)?
A. Summer Annual Weed Control Timeline: https://sfyl.ifas.ufl.edu/media/sfylifasufledu/escambia/horticulture/Summer-Annual-Lawn-Weed-Control-Timeline.pdf
Winter Annual Weed Control Timeline: https://sfyl.ifas.ufl.edu/media/sfylifasufledu/escambia/horticulture/Winter-Annual-Lawn-Weed-Control-Timeline.pdf
Q. How do I manage chamberbitter in lawns?
A. Chamberbitter: https://hgic.clemson.edu/factsheet/chamberbitter/
Gallery, with the active ingredient isoxoben, has always been the best product to control chamberbitter. Another product, Gemini, adds prodiamine with isoxoben and also provides good control.
Q. How do you get dollar weed under control?
A. Control irrigation. Dollarweed loves lots of water so make sure you are not overwatering. See: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep389
Q. I used Image to help control Bahia in Centipede. Anything else that we can use?
A. Metsulfuron methyl, 3 applications every 21 days
Q. Which postemergence herbicide is safe and effective for reducing oxalis in a lawn?
A. Yellow Woodsorrel (Oxalis) Biology and Management in Turf: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep385
Q. What is the best non-poison weed killer?
A. If a product is a weed killer, whether it is organic or synthetic, it is a poison. Alternatives to Synthetic Herbicides for Container Plants & Homeowner Herbicide Guide: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep464 & https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep575
Q. How do I treat lawn fungus?
A. First you need to determine which fungus, if any, is responsible. Key to Identification of Landscape Turfgrass Disease: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/lh064
Then turn your attention to Turfgrass Disease Management: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/lh040
Q. How do I diagnose and control mole crickets?
A. Look at this UF guide: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1021
This video shows how to do the soap flush to scout for mole crickets https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sx_o4EMXsCo
Citrus canker symptoms on twigs, leaves and fruit. Photo by Timothy Schubert, FDACS
Citrus canker was found for the first time in the Florida panhandle in Gulf Breeze in southern Santa Rosa County in November 2013. Since that time, citrus canker has spread widely in the Gulf Breeze area and just recently in 2020 was found in two locations in Panama City and Panama City Beach in Bay County.
Citrus canker is a serious bacterial disease that only infects citrus trees. It will not infect any other plant species nor is it a threat to human health. Severely affected trees experience substantial leaf loss and premature fruit drop and serve as a source for infecting nearby citrus. The disease spreads through wind, rain, and transportation of infected plant material from other locations.
This highly contagious disease has no cure although progression of the disease can be slowed through the use of copper-based products. This publication guides the homeowner on using copper.
Citrus canker lesions on leaves are raised, rough and visible on both sides of the leaf. Photo by Timothy Shubert, FDACS.
Not all citrus varieties are equally susceptible to this disease. Grapefruit, lemon, and lime are some of the most vulnerable while tangerine and tangelo varieties are among the most resistant.
What should you do if you suspect your citrus is infected with this disease?
- Look at this guide for more information and compare the symptoms on your tree to the photos. Lesions on the leaves penetrate through the leaf so they are visible on the upper and lower leaf surfaces, are rough, and have a yellow halo. The lesions look similar on the fruit and stems. Lesions (or cankers) on the stems usually indicate a longer standing infection of a year or more.
- Consult your local Horticulture Extension Agent to confirm the diagnosis and obtain more information and control/removal strategies.
- Proper removal of infected trees is recommended to prevent the spread of citrus canker but is not mandatory. The best way to dispose of infected trees is through cutting them down and burning them onsite; this ensures than none of the plant material leaves your yard to infect other areas. Consult your local burn regulations before burning. Stray leaves, branches and fruit should be raked and burned or double bagged for the trash. Please avoid disposing of any of your citrus trees by putting them by the side of the road for pickup by the county yard waste recycling or regular waste disposal. The bacterium will survive in the plant tissue and be spread to other neighborhoods in the county. You can, however, double bag infected plant material in sturdy bags and place it in the trash.
For more information please see:
UF IFAS Gardening Solutions: Citrus
Citrus Culture in the Home Landscape
UF IFAS Extension Online Guide to Citrus Diseases
The weather is warmer and plans and planting for spring vegetable gardens are in full swing. Last week many vegetable gardening topics were addressed in our Gardening in the Panhandle LIVE program. Here are all the links for all the topics we discussed. A recording of last week’s webinar can be found at: https://youtu.be/oJRM3g4lM78
Home grown Squash. Gardening, vegetables. UF/IFAS Photo by Tom Wright.
The place to start is with UF’s ever popular and comprehensive Florida Vegetable Gardening Guide https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/VH/VH02100.pdf
Many viewers expressed interest in natural methods of raising their crops. Take a look at Organic Vegetable Gardening in Florida https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/HS/HS121500.pdf
The Square Foot Vegetable Planting Guide for Northwest Florida helps plan the layout of your garden https://sfyl.ifas.ufl.edu/media/sfylifasufledu/leon/docs/pdfs/Vegetable-Square-Foot-Planting-Guide-for-Northwest-Florida-mcj2020.pdf
Maybe you would like the convenience of starting with a fresh clean soil. Gardening in Raised Beds can assist you. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep472 Also see Gardening Solutions Raised Beds: Benefits and Maintenance https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/design/types-of-gardens/raised-beds.html
Here is a guide to Fertilizing the Garden https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/vh025
The Florida Panhandle Planting Guide will help you decide what to plant and when: https://www.facebook.com/SRCExtension/posts/4464210263604274
The Ever-Popular Tomato
To start your journey to the best tomatoes, start with UF/IFAS Gardening Solutions – Tomatoes https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/edibles/vegetables/tomatoes.html
If you are looking to grow in containers: https://sfyl.ifas.ufl.edu/media/sfylifasufledu/leon/docs/pdfs/Container-Gardening-Spacing-Varieties-UF-IFAS-mcj2020.pdf
Vegetable grafting is gaining in popularity, so if interested, look at this Techniques for Melon Grafting: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1257
Blossom end rot occurs when irrigation is irregular and the calcium in the soil does not get carried to the developing fruit. The U-Scout program has a great description of this common problem: https://plantpath.ifas.ufl.edu/u-scout/tomato/blossom-end-rot.html
Our moderators talked about some of their favorite tomato varieties. Josh Freeman is partial to Amelia, a good slicing tomato. Matt Lollar shared some of the best tomato varieties for sauce: Plum/Roma types like BHN 685, Daytona, Mariana, Picus, Supremo and Tachi. For cherry tomatoes, Sheila Dunning recommended Sweet 100 and Juliette.
Whatever variety you choose, Josh says to pick when it starts changing color at the blossom end and bring it indoors to ripen away from pests.
Garden Pest Management
Let’s start with an underground pest. For those of you gardening in the native soil, very tiny roundworms can be a problem. Nematode Management in the Vegetable Garden can get you started: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/NG/NG00500.pdf
Leaffooted bugs are quite a nuisance going after the fruit. Here is how to control them: http://extension.msstate.edu/newsletters/bug%E2%80%99s-eye-view/2018/leaffooted-bugs-vol-4-no-24
Cutworms are another frustration. Learn about them here: https://nwdistrict.ifas.ufl.edu/hort/2020/02/27/cutworms-the-moonlit-garden-vandals/
Maybe your tomatoes have gotten eaten up by hornworms. https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/care/pests-and-diseases/pests/hornworm-caterpillars.html
There are beneficial creatures helping to control the pest insects. Learn to recognize and conserve them and make for a healthier environment. Natural Enemies and Biological Control: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN12000.pdf
If the beneficials are not numerous enough to control your pests, maybe a natural approach to pest control can help. Natural Products for Managing Landscape and Garden Pests in Florida: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in197
Fungal and bacterial problems can also plague the garden. Go to Integrated Disease Management for Vegetable Crops in Florida for answers: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/PP/PP11100.pdf
Get control of weeds early and consult Controlling Weeds by Cultivating & Mulching https://hgic.clemson.edu/factsheet/controlling-weeds-by-cultivating-mulching/
Companion planting is a strategy that has been around for ages and for good reason: https://www.almanac.com/companion-planting-chart-vegetables Some good flowering additions to the garden that Sheila talked about are bee balm, calendula, marigold, nasturtiums, chives, and parsley.
And Some Miscellaneous Topics…
Peppers are another popular crop. Get some questions answered here: https://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/archives/parsons/vegetables/pepper.html
When can we plant spinach in Northeast Florida? http://blogs.ifas.ufl.edu/nassauco/2017/07/15/q-can-plant-spinach-northeast-florida/
Figs are a great fruit for northwest Florida. Get started here: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/MG/MG21400.pdf and with this https://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/homefruit/fig/fig.html