Timing is Everything when Controlling Lawn Weeds

Timing is Everything when Controlling Lawn Weeds

Hot, summer months are not the time to be using most lawn herbicides.

One issue is the heat of summer. Most lawn herbicide labels include statements such as the following.

“Do not apply when temperature exceeds 90°F.” “Do not broadcast apply this product when air temperatures are above 90°F (85°F for St. Augustinegrass) unless temporary turf injury can be tolerated.”

Every year we’ll see lawns that are injured or killed because of lawn herbicides being applied when temperatures are too hot.

Summer is usually a rainy and windy time of the year. Many lawn herbicide labels include statements such as the following.

“Allow 12 hours after application before watering lawn for maximum effectives on listed weeds.” “Apply only when wind is no more than 10 mph.” “Applying this product in calm weather when rain is not predicted for the next 24 hours will help to ensure that wind or rain does not blow or wash pesticide off the treatment area.”

It is critical to read and follow the label directions and precautions for any pesticide you use. Pesticide labels, including herbicides, include the following statements.

“To the extent consistent with applicable law, the buyer assumes all risks of use, storage, or handling of this product not in accordance with label directions.” “It is a violation of Federal law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.”

Crabgrass plant growing in centipedegrass lawn

Crabgrass growing in centipedegrass lawn. Photo credit: UF/IFAS Extension

By the time summer arrives, many of the lawn weeds are mature, which means they are well established with extensive root systems. These mature, well established weeds are much more difficult to control. They are more susceptible to herbicides when they are small, young, and not well established. Also, these mature weeds have been allowed to produce countless numbers of seeds as they move into summer. Most weeds are prolific seed producers. For example, a single crabgrass plant (a common summer lawn weed) can produce 150,000 seeds.

Applying a preemergence lawn herbicide in February to help prevent summer annual weeds such as crabgrass or applying a postemergence lawn herbicide during spring while the weather is mild and before the weeds are out of control simply makes more sense than waiting until summer.

The best options now with lawn weed control involve continuing to follow good mowing practices, maybe hand removal of some weeds, and just simply waiting it out until next February and spring to worry with the use of lawn herbicides.

In the meantime, you may want to read the following UF/IFAS Extension publication on lawn weed control.

https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/EP/EP14100.pdf

Larry Williams, UF/IFAS

Centipedegrass Weed Control:  You Only Need 3 Herbicides!

Centipedegrass Weed Control: You Only Need 3 Herbicides!

Nearly everyone likes turfgrass lawns.  They’re pretty and green.  They filter water, chemicals, and nutrients before they enter our groundwater systems.  They provide a recreation spot for people and pets.  But lawns also come with maintenance tasks, one of which is weed control.  Fortunately, keeping our common Centipedegrass lawns relatively weed free is as simple as smart management and utilizing herbicides effectively.  Though the number of herbicides available for purchase can be overwhelming, you only need three to keep weeds at bay – a selective grass herbicide, a strong broadleaf herbicide, and a sedge herbicide!

Dollarweed in flower

Dollarweed, one of the toughest broadleaf weeds for homeowners to control. Picture courtesy of  Julie McConnell, UF/IFAS.

First up on the essential herbicide list is the selective grass herbicide Sethoxydim.  While most folks’ weed focus is centered on broadleaf weeds, grassy weeds like Crabgrass, Bahiagrass, Goosegrass, and others can be just as problematic and make for a very unsightly lawn.  Enter Sethoxydim.  Cheap and easy to find, Sethoxydim is offered as the active ingredient in many branded products like Fertilome Over the Top Grass Killer, Hi-Yield Grass Killer, and many more.  These products control weedy grass species without seriously harming Centipedegrass or broadleaf ornamental trees and shrubs (Centipedegrass may temporarily be yellowed after sethoxydim application but will recover).  Not only will it kill out the unwanted grass growing in your Centipede, but it will also remove these weeds from your flower beds!

Second, having a strong broadleaf herbicide on hand is necessary.  I say “strong” because many of the homeowner grade products available at garden centers simply don’t have the “juice” to control tough broadleaf weeds like Dollarweed, Doveweed, Virginia Buttonweed, and others.  For this job, I prefer to use a commercial grade 3-way product like Celsius WG by Bayer.  Celsius WG is a 3-way combination herbicide with a healthy dose of Dicamba as its primary ingredient.  Though Dicamba is a notoriously volatile chemical known to cause damage to unintended plants through drift in hot weather, combining it with the two other products in Celsius WG makes it safe to use in lawns, even in the heat of summer.  While strong broadleaf herbicides like Celsius WG are expensive on the front end, don’t let that deter you.  These products wind up being very cost effective in the long run due to minute mixing rates (one bottle goes a very long way in most residential lawns) and effectiveness – you simply will not need to waste time and money spraying lawn weeds over and over to obtain control like is necessary with lesser products – one or two applications will solve the toughest broadleaf weed problems.

Finally, any good lawn weed control program will include a quality sedge control herbicide.  Sedges (often called “nutgrass”) look like grasses but are a completely different category of plants and as such, require specialized herbicide chemistries to achieve control.  Sedge weeds prefer wetter areas of lawns, though they can occur in pretty much any lawn site and are very unsightly.  For this weed category, there are several options available to homeowners.  The one that consistently provides the best control in lawns is Halosulfuron-methyl, the active ingredient in the aptly named product Sedgehammer.  Conveniently coming in individually pre-mixed packets for small lawns or a larger bottle when more acreage is to be treated, Sedgehammer couldn’t be easier to mix and use. While Sedgehammer and similar products are extremely effective in controlling various sedge weeds, they tend to work very slowly, and patience is required.  Weeds immediately stop growing following a Sedgehammer application, but it can take up to three weeks to notice the sedges dying.

While having and using the above three herbicides can control almost any weed homeowners may encounter in their lawns, it is important to remember that herbicides are not substitutes for proper lawn management.  When good cultural practices in lawns are followed, such as mowing at the correct height, only watering when necessary, following UF/IFAS fertilizer recommendations, etc., chemical weed control may not even be necessary in many cases!  Also, once the decision to purchase and use chemical herbicides has been made, it is critical that one always read the label before using any herbicide product.  This ensures safe and effective use of the product; the label is literally the law!

For assistance in choosing the correct herbicide for your lawn and other lawn care concerns, contact your local UF/IFAS Extension Office!  Happy Gardening!

 

Landscape  Q & A

Landscape Q & A

On August 12, 2021, our panel answered questions on a wide variety of landscape topics. Maybe you are asking the same questions, so read on!

Ideas on choosing plants

What are some perennials that can be planted this late in the summer but will still bloom through the cooler months into fall?

Duranta erecta ‘Sapphire Showers’ or ‘Gold Mound’, firespike, Senna bicapsularis, shrimp plant, lion’s ear

Where can native plants be obtained?

Dune sunflower, Helianthus debilis. Photo credit: Mary Salinas UF/IFAS Extension.

Gardening Solutions: Florida Native Plants  – see link to FANN: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/ornamentals/native-plants.html

What are some evergreen groundcover options for our area?

Mondo grass, Japanese plum yew, shore juniper, ajuga, ferns such as autumn fern.

What are some ideas for partial morning sun butterfly attracting tall flowers to plant now?

Milkweed, salt and pepper plant, swamp sunflower, dune sunflower, ironweed, porterweed, and salt bush.

I’m interested in moving away from a monoculture lawn. What are some suggestions for alternatives?

Perennial peanut, powderpuff mimosa, and frogfruit.

We are new to Florida and have questions about everything in our landscape.

Florida-Friendly-Landscaping TM Program and FFL Web Apps: https://ffl.ifas.ufl.edu/

https://ffl.ifas.ufl.edu/resources/apps/

UF IFAS Gardening Solutions: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/

What are some of the top trends in landscaping today?

Houseplants, edible gardens, native plants, food forests, attracting wildlife, container gardening, and zoysiagrass lawns

Edibles

Artwork broccoli is a variety that produces small heads. Photo credit: Mary Salinas UF/IFAS Extension.

What vegetables are suitable for fall/winter gardening?

Cool Season Vegetables: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/edibles/vegetables/cool-season-vegetables.html

North Florida Gardening Calendar: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/EP451%20%20%20

Florida Vegetable Gardening Guide: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/vh021

How can I add herbs to my landscape?

Herbs in the Florida Garden: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/edibles/vegetables/herbs.html

My figs are green and hard. When do they ripen?

Why Won’t My Figs Ripen: https://www.lsuagcenter.com/profiles/rbogren/articles/page1597952870939

What is best soil for raised bed vegetable gardens?

Gardening in Raised Beds: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/EP472

And there are always questions about weeds

How can I eradicate cogongrass?

Chamber bitter is a troublesome warm season weed in our region. Photo credit: Brantlee Spakes Richter, University of Florida, Bugwood.org

Cogongrass: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/WG202

Is it okay to use cardboard for weed control?

The Cardboard Controversy: https://gardenprofessors.com/the-cardboard-controversy/

What is the best way to control weeds in grass and landscape beds?

Weed Management Guide for Florida Lawns: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/EP141

Improving Weed Control in Landscape Planting Beds: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/EP/EP52300.pdf

Landscape practices

Can ground water be brackish and stunt plants?

Reclaimed Water Use in the Landscape: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/ss545

How can I prevent erosion from rainwater runoff? 

Stormwater Runoff Control – NRCS: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/water/?cid=nrcs144p2_027171

Rain Gardens: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/design/types-of-gardens/rain-gardens.html

And https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/articles/rain-garden-manual-hillsborough.pdf

What is the best time of the year to propagate flowering trees in zone 8B?

Landscape Plant Propagation Information Page – UF/IFAS Env. Hort: https://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/database/lppi/

Which type of mulch works best on slopes greater than 3 percent?

Landscape Mulches: How Quickly do they Settle?: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/FR052

When should bulbs be fertilized?

Bulbs and More – UI Extension: https://web.extension.illinois.edu/bulbs/planting.cfm

Should I cut the spent blooms of agapanthus?

Agapanthus, extending the bloom time: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/ornamentals/agapanthus.html

http://blogs.ifas.ufl.edu/wakullaco/2020/10/07/extending-bloom-time/

Plant questions

Monarch caterpillar munching on our native sandhill milkweed, Asclepias humistrata. Photo credit: Mary Salinas, UF IFAS Extension.

I planted native milkweed and have many monarch caterpillars. Should I protect them or leave them in nature?

It’s best to leave them in place. Featured Creatures: Monarch Butterfly: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/IN/IN780/IN780-Dxyup8sjiv.pdf

How does Vinca (periwinkle) do in direct sun? Will it make it through one of our panhandle summers? Can I plant in late August?

Periwinkles  and  No more fail with Cora series: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/ornamentals/periwinkles.html#:~:text=Plant%20your%20periwinkles%20where%20they,rot%20if%20irrigated%20too%20frequently.

Insect and disease pests

What to do if you get termites in your raised bed?

The Facts About Termites and Mulch: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/IN651

How to combat fungus?

Guidelines for ID and Management of Plant Disease Problems: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/mg442

Are there preventative measures to prevent diseases when the humidity is very high and it is hot?

Fungi in Your Landscape by Maxine Hunter: http://blogs.ifas.ufl.edu/marionco/2020/01/16/fungi-in-your-landscape/

 

If you missed an episode, check out our playlist on YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bp0HfdEkIQw&list=PLhgoAzWbtRXImdFE8Jdt0jsAOd-XldNCd

 

It’s Green, Gelatinous and in My Lawn

It’s Green, Gelatinous and in My Lawn

The lawn is a source of pride for most and anything out of the ordinary causes alarm.  Now image finding something that looks like lumpy green jelly in your turfgrass and it doesn’t go away.  You try raking it, spraying it, covering it, and it still comes back time and time again.  One of the things we see in late spring/early summer turf is a reemergence of cyanobacteria (Nostoc), sometimes confused with algae because of green coloring and this remains all summer long.

Dehydrated cyanobacteria in a centipedegrass lawn.

Unlike normal bacteria that needs a food source, cyanobacteria contains chlorophyll and produces its own food source through photosynthesis which allows it to grow on bare sandy soils, fabric mats, concrete sidewalks, plastic, and yes even your lawn.  Besides the green pigment, it also produces a blue pigment and is why we call it cyanobacteria which means blue-green bacteria.  In addition to photosynthesis, cyanobacteria can also fix nitrogen, and are believed to produce cyanotoxins and allelopathic compounds which can affect plant growth around them.

Cyanobacteria are considered one of earth’s oldest organism and they have tremendous survival capabilities. They can dry out completely, be flat, flaky, black-green dried particles in your lawn and once rehydrated, spring back to life.  If you happen to notice it spreading throughout your yard, remember that pieces of the organism can stick to your wet shoes or lawnmower tires and be transported unintentionally.

The question then becomes how to control the cyanobacteria and reclaim your turfgrass.  The first solution is to have a healthy lawn.  Cyanobacteria likes poorly-drained compacted soils.  This same condition is unfavorable to turf growth and why you end up with bare spots and establishment.  Reduce soil compaction by using a core aerator, and then adding organic matter.  This will increase drainage, gas exchange, and encourage microorganism populations which I like to call soil pets.  Spike aerators only push the soil particles aside and don’t really loosen as well.  Try to reduce low lying areas in the lawn where water sits after rainfall and irrigation.  You might have to till and reestablish those areas of the yard.

Hydrated cyanobacteria

The same cyanobacteria pictured above 24 hours after being rehydrated in a petri dish of standing water.

Controlling the amount of water Mother Nature gives us and humidity levels during summer is not possible, but you can control your irrigation whether it be automatic (sprinkler system) or hand-watered.  During the rainy season, you should be able to get by with only rainfall and shut off your system.  If needed during extended dry weeks, it is easy enough to turn the system back on.  It is thought that cyanobacteria likes phosphorus which is another reason to use little to no phosphorus in your lawn fertilizers.

As you begin to rid your lawn of cyanobacteria, remember when fully hydrated it forms a slippery surface so be careful walking on it.  Cultural practices will be more effective in controlling the spread versus using chemical methods.  Cultural solutions are safer for your lawn, yard and all of the wildlife that visits.  If you need help with your cyanobacteria, please contact your local Extension office and we are always happy to assist.

A special thanks to Dr. Bryan Unruh, UF/IFAS for his assistance in identifying the cyanobacteria.

For additional information, please read the sources listed below.

 

 

 

 

Biology and Management of Nostoc (Cyanobacteria) in Nurseries and Greenhouses.  H. Dail Laughinghouse IV, David E. Berthold, Chris Marble, and Debalina Saha

Rain, Overwatering Can Cause Slippery Algae to Pop Up in Turfgrass.  C. Waltz

Nostoc.  N.J. Franklin

 

 

 

Vines, Vines, Vines:  What’s Growing Up My Trees?

Vines, Vines, Vines: What’s Growing Up My Trees?

We work very hard to maintain our gardens and then we look up and vines are growing 20′ into the trees.  I get asked frequently “what is growing up my trees?” My first answer is “probably the same things growing on your fences.”  These include Smilax species, commonly called catbrier or greenbrier, Vitis rotundifolia, referred to as wild muscadine grape, Parthenocissus quinquefolia or Virginia Creeper, and the one to be most careful with, Toxicodendron radicans, known by many as Poison Ivy.

Smilax Vine

Spring growth on the Smilax vine.

Smilax is a native vine that grows quickly in spring and all summer.  There are 12 species in Florida and 9 species commonly found in the Panhandle.  Besides being armed with thorns on their stems and some leaves, Smilax spreads by underground stems called rhizomes.  If you choose to ignore it, some species can cover your trees and the stems become woody and hard to remove.  This vine also produces fruit and seeds are dispersed by birds all while the underground rhizomes are spreading under your lawns and gardens.

Smilax Vine on Tree Trunk

Smilax can quickly cover a tree trunk.

Removal can be difficult and mowing the vines only encourages more growth.  When trying to remove by hand, wear heavy leather gloves and some eye protection because of the thorns.  Cut the stems about three feet above the ground which allows you some stem to pull on to bring it out of your tree.  You also then have a handle to pull and try to remove some of the rhizome from underground.  Digging rhizomes is time consuming, but gives you piece of mind that they won’t come back immediately.  Our family actually harvests the new shoots in spring and we use them like asparagus.

Wild muscadine grape is also native and difficult to remove.  Most of the vines in nature are male and only produce by runners along the ground and then grow upwards.  The female vine can produce 4-10 grapes in a cluster and then reseeds itself.

Muscadine on a fence.

Wild muscadine grape covering a fence.

Wild grape completely covers plants and eventually the plants underneath can die.  There are no thorns to contend with when removing wild grape, it is just time consuming, especially if it has taken over your fence or natural areas.

Virginia Creeper is a native vine, still considered a nursery plant in some areas of the country, and has bright red fall color.

Virginia Creeper

Virginia Creeper climbing a tree trunk.

It is most often confused with poison ivy because of having five leaflets per leaf whereas poison ivy only has three leaflets per leaf.  It spreads by seeds, runs along the ground, and is the easiest of these four vines to remove from your property.

Poison Ivy is a native vine distinguished by its three leaflets with the individual leaflets getting up to 6″ long.  This vine spreads by seeds and underground rhizomes.  What makes removal of this vine difficult is the urushiol oils which causes the skin rashes and blistering.

Poison Ivy

Poison ivy covering a tree trunk.

Care must be taken to cover up all skin and I recommend wearing waterproof clothes versus cotton which can absorb the oils and transfer them to your skin.  Under no circumstances should these vines be put on the burn pile, the oils can become airborne and then you can inhale them.

Here are a few helpful tips when battling these native vines.  First have patience and be dedicated, this removal will not happen over night.  It may take a year or two to rid your property of the original vines.  Be diligent though, because birds will continually land in your trees and deposit more seeds to get a fresh start.  Try to remove vines when they are young and just beginning to climb your trees and fences.  If you know you don’t have the time or energy to remove the vines from all your trees, at least cut the vines close to the ground to reduce flowering and new seeds.  Be careful with poison ivy because falling leaves still contain oils.  Once the vines start to have a new flush of growth, spray a non-selective herbicide on new growth and you should have good results.  Lastly, remember one person can make a difference in trying to reduce the number of nuisance vines in our communities.

Here are some sited references to help with your removal tasks.  Key to Nine Common Smilax Species of Florida. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/fr375.  Smilax is a Vine that can be Difficult to Control. http://blogs.ifas.ufl.edu/wakullaco/2017/04/21/smilax-is-a-vine-that-can-be-difficult-to-control/.  The Muscadine Grape (Vitus rotundifolia Michx.)  https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/hs100.  Muscadine Grape Vines: Difficult to Control in Your Landscape. http://blogs.ifas.ufl.edu/wakullaco/2017/03/24/muscadine-grape-vines-difficult-to-control-in-your-landscape/.  Parthenocissus quinquefolia: Virginia Creeper https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/fp454.  Identification of Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, Poison Sumac, and Poisonwood. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/EP220.

Winter Annual Weeds, a Great Place to Hide Easter Eggs

Winter Annual Weeds, a Great Place to Hide Easter Eggs

As a boy in a small town in Georgia we had a St. Augustinegrass lawn. My dad started the lawn before I was born. That lawn was still doing fine when I left for college at age seventeen. I don’t remember weeds in the lawn during summer months. I do fondly remember winter “weeds” in that lawn.

To see clumps of winter annuals in our yard and in neighbors’ yards was a natural part of the transition from winter to spring. They added interest to what

Bluish Easter egg hidden in chickweed

Blue Easter egg hidden in chickweed. Photo credit: Larry Williams

would have been a plain palette of green. It was expected to see henbit with its square stiff stems holding up a display of small pinkish purple flowers in late winter and early spring. A clump of henbit was a great place to hide an Easter egg, especially a pink or purple one.

Wild geranium, another common winter annual, offered another good hiding place for Easter eggs with its pink to purple flowers. Large clumps of annual chickweed would nicely hide whole eggs. Green colored eggs would blend with chickweed’s green leaves.

Pink Easter egg hidden in crimson clover and hop clover mix

Pink Easter egg hidden in crimson clover & hop clover mix. Photo credit: Larry Williams

Crimson clover with its reddish flowers, hop clover and black medic with their bright yellow flowers were good hiding places for Easter eggs. Plus clovers add nitrogen back to our soils.

I never remember my dad using any weed killer, he rarely watered. The lawn was healthy and thick enough to be a deterrent to summer weeds. But during fall and winter as the lawn would naturally thin and go dormant, winter annual weeds would run their course.

I’ve heard that the sense of smell provides our strongest memories. I remember the first mowing of the season with the clean smell of chlorophyll in the spring air. It was refreshing. Once mowed and as the heat took its toll, by late April or mid-May, these winter annual weeds were gone. What was left was a green lawn to help cool the landscape as the weather warmed. The lawn was mowed high as St. Augustine should be, played on and typically not worried with.

Most people have winter weeds in their lawns that let us know spring is near. Perhaps we worry too much with these seasonal, temporary plants that may have wrongly been labeled as weeds. Besides, how long have we been doing battle with these weeds and they are still here. Most lawns have countless numbers of winter annual seeds awaiting the cooler temperatures and shorter days of early winter to begin yet another generation. By May they are gone.