Common Salvinia Covering Farm pond in Gadsden County
Photo Credit – Shep Eubanks UF/IFAS Gadsden County Extension
Close up of common Salvinia
Photo Credit – Shep Eubanks UF/IFAS Gadsden County Extension
Aquatic weed problems are common in the panhandle of Florida. Common Salvinia (Salvinia minima) is a persistent invasive weed problem found in many ponds in Gadsden County. There are ten species of salvinia in the tropical Americas but none are native to Florida. They are actually floating ferns that measure about 3/4 inch in length. Typically it is found in still waters that contain high organic matter. It can be found free-floating or in the mud. The leaves are round to somewhat broadly elliptic, (0.4–1 in long), with the upper surface having 4-pronged hairs and the lower surface is hairy. It commonly occurs in freshwater ponds and swamps from the peninsula to the central panhandle of Florida.
Reproduction is by spores, or fragmentation of plants, and it can proliferate rapidly allowing it to be an aggressive invasive species. When these colonies cover the surface of a pond as pictured above they need to be controlled as the risk of oxygen depletion and fish kill is a possibility. If the pond is heavily infested with weeds, it may be possible (depending on the herbicide chosen) to treat the pond in sections and let each section decompose for about two weeks before treating another section. Aeration, particularly at night, for several days after treatment may help control the oxygen depletion.
Control measures include raking or seining, but remember that fragmentation propagates the plant. Grass carp will consume salvinia but are usually not effective for total control. Chemical control measures include :carfentrazone, diquat, fluridone, flumioxazin, glyphosate, imazamox, and penoxsulam.
For more information reference these IFAS publications:
Efficacy of Herbicide Active ingredients Against Aquatic Weeds
For help with controlling Common salvinia consult with your local Extension Agent for weed control recommendations, as needed.
The northwest Florida area has been identified as having the highest concentration of invasive lionfish in the world. Lionfish pose a significant threat to our native wildlife and habitat with spearfishing the primary means of control. Lionfish tournaments are one way to increase harvest of these invaders and help keep populations down.
Located in Destin FL, and hosted by the Gulf Coast Lionfish Tournaments and the Emerald Coast Convention and Visitors Bureau, the Emerald Coast Open (ECO) is projected to be the largest lionfish tournament in history. The ECO, with large cash payouts, more gear and other prizes, and better competition, will attract professional and recreational divers, lionfish hunters and the general public.
You do not need to be on a team, or shoot hundreds of lionfish to win. Get rewarded for doing your part! The task is simple, remove lionfish and win cash and prizes! The pretournament runs from February 1 through May 15 with final weigh-in dockside at AJ’s Seafood and Oyster Bar on Destin Harbor May 16-19. Entry Fee is $75 per participant through April 1, 2019. After April 1, 2019, the entry fee is $100 per participant. You can learn more at the website http://emeraldcoastopen.com/, or follow the Tournament on Facebook.
The Emerald Coast Open will be held in conjunction with FWC’s Lionfish Removal & Awareness Day Festival (LRAD), May 18-19 at AJ’s and HarborWalk Village in Destin. The Festival will be held 10 a.m. to 5 p.m each day. Bring your friends and family for an amazing festival and learn about lionfish, taste lionfish, check out lionfish products! There will be many family-friendly activities including art, diving and marine conservation booths. Learn how to safely fillet a lionfish and try a lionfish dish at a local restaurant. Have fun listening to live music and watching the Tournament weigh-in and awards. Learn why lionfish are such a big problem and what you can do to help! Follow the Festival on Facebook!
“An Equal Opportunity Institution”
By L. Scott Jackson and Julie B. McConnell, UF/IFAS Extension Bay County
Northwest Florida’s pristine natural world is being threaten by a group of non-native plants and animals known collectively as invasive species. Exotic invasive species originate from other continents and have adverse impacts on our native habitats and species. Many of these problem non-natives have nothing to keep them in check since there’s nothing that eats or preys on them in their “new world”. One of the most problematic and widespread invasive plants we have in our local area is air potato vine.
Air potato vine originated in Asia and Africa. It was brought to Florida in the early 1900s. People moved this plant with them using it for food and traditional medicine. However, raw forms of air potato are toxic and consumption is not recommended. This quick growing vine reproduces from tubers or “potatoes”. The potato drops from the vine and grows into the soil to start new vines. Air potato is especially a problem in disturbed areas like utility easements, which can provide easy entry into forests. Significant tree damage can occur in areas with heavy air potato infestation because vines can entirely cover large trees. Some sources report vine growth rates up to eight inches per day!
Air Potato vines covering native shrubs and trees in Bay County, Florida. (Photo by L. Scott Jackson)
Mechanical removal of vines and potatoes from the soil is one control method. Additionally, herbicides are often used to remediate areas dominated by air potato vine but this runs the risk of affecting non-target plants underneath the vine. A new tool for control was introduced to Florida in 2011, the air potato leaf beetle. Air potato beetle releases have been monitored and evaluated by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) researchers and scientists for several years.
Air Potato Beetle crawling on leaf stem. Beetles eat leaves curtailing the growth and impact of air potato. (Photo by Julie B. McConnell)
Air potato beetles target only air potato leaves making them a perfect candidate for biological control. Biological controls aid in the management of target invasive species. Complete eradication is not expected, however suppression and reduced spread of air potato vine is realistic.
UF/IFAS Extension Bay County will host the Air Potato Challenge on June 6, 2018. Citizen scientist will receive air potato beetles and training regarding introduction of beetles into their private property infested with air potato vine. Pre-registration is recommended to receive the air potato beetles. Please visit http://bit.ly/bayairpotato
In conjunction with the Air Potato Challenge, UF/IFAS Extension Bay County will be hosting an invasive species awareness workshop. Dr. Steve Johnson, UF/IFAS Associate Professor of Wildlife Ecology, will be presenting “Exotic Invaders: Reptiles and Amphibians of Concern in Northwest Florida”. Additionally, experts from UF/IFAS Extension, Florida Fish and Wildlife, and the Science and Discovery center will have live exhibits featuring invasive reptiles, lionfish, and plants. For more information visit http://bay.ifas.ufl.edu or call the UF/IFAS Extension Bay County Office at 850-784-6105.
Flyer for Air Potato Challenge and Invasive Species Workshop June 6 2018
Bamboo shoots. Photo credit: Carrie Stevenson
Standing in the midst of a stand of bamboo, it’s easy to feel dwarfed. Smooth and sturdy, the hollow, sectioned woody shoots of this fascinating plant can tower as tall as 70 feet. Unfortunately, bamboo is a real threat to natural ecosystems, moving quickly through wooded areas, wetlands, and neighborhoods, taking out native species as it goes.
We do have one native species referred to as bamboo or cane (Arundinaria gigantea), which is found in reasonable numbers in southeastern wetlands and the banks of rivers. There are over a thousand species of true bamboo, but chief among the invasive varieties that give us trouble is Golden Bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea). Grown in its native Southeast Asia as a food source, building material, or for fishing rods, bamboo is also well known as the primary diet (99%) of the giant panda. In the United States, the plant was brought in as an ornamental—a fast growing vegetative screen that can also be used as flooring material or food. Clumping bamboos can be managed in a landscape, but the invasive, spreading bamboo will grow aggressively via roots and an extensive network of underground rhizomes that might extend more than 100 feet from their origin.
As a perennial grass, bamboo grows straight up, quickly, and can withstand occasional cutting and mowing without impacts to its overall health. However, a repeated program of intensive mowing, as often as you’d mow a lawn and over several years, will be needed to keep the plant under control. Small patches can be dug up, and there has been some success with containing the rhizomes by installing an underground “wall” of wood, plastic, or metal 18” into the soil around a section of bamboo.
Whimsy art Panda in a bamboo forest at the Glendale Nature Preserve. Photo credit: Carrie Stevenson
While there are currently no chemical methods of control specifically labeled for bamboo at this time, the herbicides imazapyr (trade name Arsenal and others) or glyphosate (Round-up, Rodeo) applied at high rates can control it. According to research on the topic, “bamboo should be mowed or chopped and allowed to regrow to a height of approximately 3 feet, or until the leaves expand. Glyphosate at a 5% solution or imazapyr as a 1% solution can then be applied directly to the leaves.” These treatments will often need to be repeated as many as four times before succeeding in complete control of bamboo.
Land managers should know that while imazapyr is typically a more effective herbicide for bamboo, it can kill surrounding beneficial trees and shrubs due to its persistence in the contiguous roots and soil. In contrast, glyphosate solutions will only kill the species to which it has been applied and is the best choice for most areas managed by homeowners.
Bamboo Control: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/AG/AG26600.pdf
Lantana is a landscape plant that easily escapes cultivation and spreads. Photo Credit: Jennifer Bearden
You know that plant in the corner of the yard that seems to be taking over? It’s the one that your friend “passed along” because they had plenty of them and wanted to share. After all, it grows so well. How can you go wrong?
The odds are that vigorous plant is a non-native species. The majority of what is sold in nurseries are introduced from a foreign country and developed for their uniqueness. The problem is that many of the plants brought into the United States arrive without their natural enemies. Under the long, warm growing season found in Florida, these non-native plants become the dominant plant in an area and manage to out-compete the native plants. When this happens, these introduced plants get labeled as an “invasive species”.
These invasive species threaten Florida’s environment, economy and health, requiring an estimated $120 billion a year to control them. Learning which of these plants have the potential to become invasive has been a focus of researchers with the UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. They have spent more than a year developing a searchable website and database to help Floridians assess problem non-native plants. The website features more than 800 species, is easily searchable by common or scientific name, and the results can be filtered. The site helps predict the invasive potential. Each species is categorized as “caution”, “invasive not recommended”, or “prohibited” based on their ecological threat.
If you want to learn more about your friend’s ”passalong” plant be sure to visit the Assessment of Nonnative Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas website and database. Also check the FLEPPC (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council) list. Also make sure new plants are not on the Florida Noxious Weed List or the Federal Noxious Weed List.
Chemical (Herbicide) treatments, while not the only option, are often required for effective control of woody invasive species. When treating woody invasive species there are three common, relatively simple techniques for applying herbicide; Foliar, Basal, and Cut Stump.
Foliar applications are the only option for invasive grasses like cogongrass. Photo Credit: Jennifer Bearden
Foliar Applications – spray solution is applied directly to leaves. For these applications to be effective leaves must be present and actively growing. Additionally, plants should not be disturbed for several weeks after the application. The herbicide must have time to move throughout the entire plant. Remember, the goal is killing plants, not leaves. Perennial plants can handle losing their leaves; they go through that process every year.
There are some points to consider when making foliar applications. The height of the plants being treated should not exceed 6-8ft. As the height of the plants increase, spray drift management becomes more of a concern. Upward spraying of herbicide greatly increases the likelihood of injuring non-target plants. Adequate coverage is another important consideration for foliar applications. All leaves need to be covered but not to the point of runoff. The timing of the application is also important; foliar sprays on perennial plants are generally the most effective in the late summer – early fall when the plants are naturally translocating product into their roots preparing for winter dormancy. This process facilitates the movement of herbicide into the roots.
Foliar applications are the only option for invasive grasses, they can be effective on shrubs, but are less than ideal for trees. The ratio of leaf area to total biomass is key to the effectiveness of foliar treatments; grasses are nearly all leaf, shrubs are relatively small and generally fairly leafy, trees can be very large with relatively few leaves making effective foliar treatments rather difficult. Retreatment is often needed to acquire complete control of trees and large shrubs.
As the name implies, individual plant treatments treat one plant at a time. These treatments are very effective, selective, and labor intensive. The two most straightforward kinds of individual plant treatment are basal and cut-stump applications.
Simply put, basal treatments involve applying an herbicide mixed with an oil penetrant directly to the bottom 12-18 inches of a standing tree or shrub. For basal treatments to be consistently effective trees need to be less than 6 inches in diameter and have smooth bark. Additionally, the bottom 12-18 inches of the stem need to be completely coated with herbicide/oil mixture. Results are very slow, often months. Basal treatments can be successful any time of year except during the “spring flush” when the upward sap flow impedes herbicide translocation. It should be noted that basal treatments will result in standing, dead trees and shrubs.
Cut stump treatment of removed tree prevents regrowth and is often used when controlling invasive species.
Cut-stump treatments involve applying a high concentration of herbicide directly to the freshly cut stump of an unwanted tree or shrub. The herbicide application prevents regrowth and suckering. These treatments are highly dependable and effective any time of year other than during the “spring flush”, as described above. For larger, thicker barked trees cut –stump treatments are the most dependable control option.
Follow the link below for additional information and for specific chemical recommendations to use with an of these techniques contact your county’s UF/IFAS Extension Office: Herbicide Techniques for Woody Plant Control