Timing is Everything for Spring Lawn Fertilizing

Timing is Everything for Spring Lawn Fertilizing

Our trees and vines are flowering and lawns are starting to green up naturally, but one glance at the calendar and it is still early spring.  The last official frost date for the Florida panhandle can be into April depending on location.  We know our day time and night time temperatures are still fluctuating every other day.  We also know the stores and nurseries are stocked with shelves and pallets of fertilizer.  So the big question is when can I fertilizer my lawn?

Ryegrass

Overseeded ryegrass on a centipedegrass lawn.

My answer after years of practice is always it depends, but my non-scientific rule of thumb to homeowners is wait until you mow three weeks in a row and make sure you’re past the last frost dates for your area.  If you need to mow three weeks in a row for height, then your lawn is actively growing and most likely we are into a temperature range good for fertilizer applications.  If you apply fertilizer to a lawn that is dormant, the fertilizer will not be taken up by your roots and it can leach below the root zone wasting money while not improving the lawn and possibly causing environmental concerns.

With that said, there are some factors to consider.  We always recommend doing a soil test first.  This can be done in advance of spring.  Your test results might indicate having sufficient nutrients in the soil, so not applying would save you money and the lawn would still look good.  The soil test will also indicate what nutrients are in excess or lacking, then you can apply only the nutrients needed.

I have found that fertilizer is still very much misunderstood.  When I ask homeowners whether they consider fertilizer to be medicine or a stressor, most will answer medicine and we all know if a little medicine is good, then a bit more is better.  However, it is more accurate to think of fertilizer as a chemical stressor.  If my lawn is unhealthy, then I force my lawn to grow and it can further weaken my plants.  Think of it like this, if you’re not feeling well at night before you go to bed, should you consume one of those big energy drinks?  Not if you want to sleep and hopefully feel better in the morning.  Apply fertilizer when the lawn is ready and capable of having a positive response when spring fully arrives.

Bahia mix

Wakulla County Extension office mixed species turf.

Here are some items you should know before you fertilize the lawn.  Fertilizers used in Florida should have a license number that begins with F followed by a series of numbers.  It is important to check your fertilizers before you apply.  You need to know what type of turfgrass you have in your lawn.   We have a lot of bahiagrass and centipedegrass lawns in the panhandle.  Each will require a different regiment.  You are only allowed to apply one pound of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet per application and you should never apply more than the recommended rate.  I always refer to a childhood fable “The Tortoise and the Hare” when thinking about plant health.  Slow and steady makes for a better lawn in the long run.  This means you need to measure your lawn, understand how to calculate the nitrogen and then apply correctly with the right equipment and spreader patterns.  We also recommend very little phosphorus (the middle number on the fertilizer bag 15-0-15) for Florida lawns.  Our soils are usually sufficient and this is another item your soil test results will confirm.

Remember, your local Extension office is always here to help especially making sure you treat the lawn right.  Think before you apply because your long-term goal is improving the lawn quality.

 

The Florida Fertilizer Label (https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss170) and General Recommendations for Fertilization of Turfgrasses on Florida Soils (https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/lh014). T. W. Shaddox, assistant professor; UF/IFAS Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314

Homeowner Best Management Practices for the Home Lawn (https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep236).  Laurie E. Trenholm, professor, Extension turfgrass specialist, Environmental Horticulture Department; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

Bahiagrass for Florida Lawns (https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/lh006).  L. E. Trenholm, professor, turfgrass specialist, Department of Environmental Horticulture; J. B. Unruh, professor, turfgrass specialist, UF/IFAS West Florida Research and Education Center; and J. L. Cisar, retired professor, turfgrass specialist, UF/IFAS Ft. Lauderdale REC; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

Centipedegrass for Florida Lawns (https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/lh009).  J. B. Unruh, professor, turfgrass specialist, UF/IFAS West Florida Research and Education Center; L. E. Trenholm, associate professor, turfgrass specialist, Environmental Horticulture Department; and J. L. Cisar, professor, turfgrass specialist, UF/IFAS Ft. Lauderdale REC; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

 

 

Strawberries, a Cold Hardy Delight in Florida

Strawberries, a Cold Hardy Delight in Florida

Who doesn’t like strawberries, right? Backyard gardeners grow these low-growing herbs throughout the state and there is a significant commercial industry too, as Florida’s climate is ideal for cool season production.

Strawberries like well-drained sandy soils, so they’re a perfect fit for many areas in the Panhandle. Strawberries should be planted in the months of October or November as the plants are quite cold hardy. Shorter days and temperatures between 50°F and 80°F are ideal for fruit development.

Photo Credit: Cristina Carriz, UF/IFAS

Strawberries are also very versatile. You can plant them in the ground, in raised beds or even containers. Transplants should be planted 12” to 18” apart, with 12” row spacing. For best results, use a rich soil balanced with compost and sandy soil and both fertilize and water regularly. Mixing in 2 ½ pounds of 10-10-10 fertilizer into a 10’ x 10’ bed space should be sufficient to start. A sprinkle of fertilizer applied monthly throughout the growing season should also help ensure a solid yield.

Berry production begins to ramp up roughly 90 days after planting, but plants will continue to produce throughout the spring. When the weather gets warmer, the plants start to expend energy into producing runners instead of fruit. These runners will be new fruit producing plants for next season.

Transplants can be purchased from most garden centers. There are many varieties on the market, but “Florida-Friendly” cultivars include “Sweet Charlie”, “Camarosa”, “Chandler”, “Oso Grande”, “Selva”, and “Festival”. “Camarosa” has proven to be the most productive variety in North Florida. Any of these varieties are capable of producing two pints of fruit per plant.

As stated earlier, Florida has a significant strawberry industry and UF/IFAS has a supporting role. The UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (GCREC) is home to the Strawberry Breeding Program. Cultivars are developed by traditional means, for the Florida commercial industry on an 11,000+ acres research site. Appearance, shelf life, sweet flavor and disease resistance are just some of the areas of selected breading research that is conducted on site. There is also a white strawberry soon to be released!

Photo Credit: Cristina Carriz, UF/IFAS

For more information, contact your local county extension office.

Supporting information for this article can be found at the website: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/edibles/fruits/strawberries.html

UF/IFAS Extension is an Equal Opportunity Institution.

 

Romaine: Lettuce of an Empire

Romaine: Lettuce of an Empire

Who doesn’t enjoy a fresh, crisp bowl of salad? Lettuce happens to be a vegetable that is easily grown in Florida for fall & winter gardens. In Florida, four types of lettuce are commonly grown: crisphead, butterhead, leaf, & today’s topic, romaine.

Photo courtesy of Tyler Jones, UF/IFAS.

An interesting, little known fact about romaine lettuce is that it was cultivated extensively by the Roman Empire. By the fourteenth century, the Catholic Hierarchy had moved from Rome to Avignon, France bringing their prized lettuce along with them. During this period, the plant was known as “Avignon” lettuce. In England, romaine is called “cos” lettuce named after the Greek islands from which the lettuce was originally distributed. Of course, in the U.S., the name we give, Romaine, refers to the time when it was grown extensively in the Roman Empire.

Romaine is grown both commercially and in backyard gardens across the state. Like all lettuce, this is a cool season vegetable. September through March is a generally the extent of the growing season. Romaine can be grown from seeds or by transplants. If you are going the seeding route, just remember these seeds are very small and should be sown shallow and in a tight pattern, with 12”-18” row spacing and a light sprinkle of soil over the top. Newly planted seeds may require burlap or straw to help retain soil moisture for successful germination. Once plants reach a few inches in height, rows can be thinned to where plants are 8” apart.

Romaine needs adequate soil moisture throughout the season. Mulching around plants to retain moisture and adding a complete fertilizer such as 8-8-8 will help ensure a good yield. Lettuce is vulnerable to the usual suspects of garden pests. However, gardening in cooler months helps combat that threat.

Romaine lettuce is fun and rewarding to harvest, as well. You can pick a few leaves off a plant or harvest the entire head.

For more information, contact your local UF/IFAS County Extension office.

Supporting information for this article can be found in the UF/IFAS EDIS publication, “Romaine – Lactuca sativa L.” by James M. Stephens, Emeritus Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist, UF/IFAS: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mv125

UF/IFAS Extension is an Equal Opportunity Institution.

Yellow is Not a Normal Sago Color

Yellow is Not a Normal Sago Color

Photo by: Sheila Dunning

The first sign that something is going wrong in a plant is often a loss of the color green.  When a sago is forming all new yellow leaves it is a matter of concern.  Typically, this a common nutritional deficiency – manganese.  Sandy soils of the Panhandle have a hard time retaining nutrients.  Manganese and other micronutrient availability is highly influenced by soil pH.  Being an essential plant nutrient, manganese is critical to growth.  More specifically, it is the base of the metalloenzyme cluster of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II (PSII).  I hope that means more to you than it does me.  Basically, manganese is part of the photosynthetic activity and since it isn’t very mobile in the plant, the new growth of sagos turns yellow.

If the nutrient deficiency isn’t corrected, the newly-formed leaves will become deformed and turn brown.  In a sago this is referred to as “frizzle-top”.  Many people believe the plant has a disease when they see the symptoms and may apply fungicides to no avail.  Keep in mind the discoloration of the affected leaves cannot be reversed.  However, manganese replacement in the soil will enable the sago to form normal leaves with the next growth phase. Damaged fronds can be removed later to improve the appearance of the sago over time.

Begin this process by determining the soil pH through a soil test.  Your local Extension office can help you obtain lab submission forms and explain the collection procedure.  Manganese is most available for uptake by sagos when the soil pH is between 5.5 and 6.5.  If the pH is above 6.5, larger amounts of manganese will have to be present before the plant can utilize it.  When the soil pH is below 5.5 the nutrient is quickly leached out of the soil during rain events.

To correct a manganese deficiency the sago plant will need to receive manganese sulfate.  The product is readily available at local nurseries, garden centers and building supply stores. The amount needed for each plant will vary with the size of the sago and the existing soil pH.  Sagos growing in sandy, acidic soil will require less manganese sulfate than those in high pH soils.  Refer to the package label for application rates.

A Native Groundcover with a Springtime Surprise

A Native Groundcover with a Springtime Surprise

Powderpuff mimosa (Mimosa strigillosa), also called Sunshine Mimosa or Sensitive Plant, is an increasingly popular native plant for home and commercial landscape applications that offers a very show display of puffy pink flowers this time of year!

Powderpuff Mimosa, (Mimosa strigillosa). Photo courtesy of Ray Bodrey.

This Florida native, low-growing groundcover grows no more than eight inches in height, and that would be classified as an extremely vigorous stand. Powderpuff Mimosa is technically a perennial legume, meaning it doesn’t need any nitrogen fertilizer from gardeners.

The groundcover is appealing to the eye with its dark green fern-like leaves.  Not an evergreen, the plants fall into a semi-dormant to dormant state during the fall and winter seasons. Powderpuff Mimosa is a very resilient groundcover as well, needing little irrigation, spreading quickly, and co-existing well with turfgrass. Just a few pots of this species transplanted should cover up to 300 square feet in a season. Although it spreads quickly, it can easily be pruned or mowed if it moves into unwanted areas.

Powderpuff mimosa is a great plant for erosion control due to its deep roots. These deep roots also allow for good levels of drought tolerance. There are very few insect or disease problems with this plant, other than the occasional caterpillar. It is a very wildlife and pollinator friendly plant, with honeybees, butterflies, deer, and more all finding it appealing. It’s even considered a livestock forage, as cattle find it palatable.

Looking to plant powderpuff mimosa in your landscape? Any area that gets mostly full sun is just fine. This plant is adapted to a wide range of soils, but particularly flourishes in well-drained, sandy loam soils.  Be sure to water regularly, especially to ensure successful establishment in your landscape. Find this wonderful little plant at Florida native plant nurseries!

For more information contact the Gulf County Extension Office at 639-3200 or email at rbodrey@ufl.edu.

Supporting information for this article can be found in the UF/IFAS Extension website: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/ornamentals/powderpuff-mimosa.html & USDA website: https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_mist2.pdf

UF/IFAS Extension is an Equal Opportunity Institution.