Fall Preparation in the Garden!

Fall Preparation in the Garden!

Carrots need enough space so as not to compete for light, nutrients, or moisture. Photo by Full Earth Farm.

Photo by Full Earth Farm.

Yes, that’s right! We made it through the hottest part of the year and we are looking ahead to fall just around the corner!  I am excited to be discussing September and what we can do to prepare for fall in the garden.  As the nighttime temperatures start to cool down, we are given many more options.

For annual color plantings in September, try Ageratum, Celosia, Zinnias, and Wax Begonia to add fall color to your landscape.  Bulbs will also add color, texture, and pattern to a bed.   If you have some extra space, a variety of elephant ears could really accent a bed or you could always go with the classic calla, narcissus or zephyr lily.  Popular vegetables to plant in North Florida in September are broccoli, carrot, cabbage, and collards. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida This is also the time of year to establish strawberry plants.  Some great herbs to get started are Mexican tarragon, mint, rosemary, and basil.

Strawberries growing on "plastic" to protect them from water splashed fungal spores found in soil. Image Credit: Matthew Orwat UF/IFAS Extension Washington County

Image Credit: Matthew Orwat UF/IFAS Extension Washington County

There are many things that can be done in your lawn during September.  Monitoring your lawn for its health and potential insect pests is important this time of year.  Common insects to scout for are fall armyworms, chinch bugs, mole crickets, and sod webworms.  The last fertilizer application should be done by the middle to end of September.  Make sure you choose a fertilizer with little to no phosphorus unless a soil test shows differently.  To maintain a healthy lawn, avoid weed and feed products and only apply herbicides in areas with high infestations of weeds. Weed and feed products are not recommended because the timing of when to fertilize and the timing of the weed killer is not always the same. The best management practice is to use a separate treatment for weeds and when possible spot treat weeds.

If you already have bulbs in your landscape from previous growing seasons, this is the time to divide and replant those that are big.  You can also add organic matter to new planting areas. Continue working on your vegetable plants and prepare them for either transplants for a fast start, or plants seeds for more variety.  Throughout your landscape, it is important that plants are getting the right amount of water as we go in and out of wet and dry weather this time of year.

October will be here before we know it in just a couple of weeks. Look out for the next article to come.  We will be getting into the cooler nights and more options for planting vegetables and herbs!

Rainlily: A Rewarding Bulb for Panhandle Gardeners

Rainlily: A Rewarding Bulb for Panhandle Gardeners

Bulbs are my favorite class of ornamental plants.  They generally are low maintenance, come back reliably year after year, and sport the showiest flowers around.  While many bulbs like Daylily, Crinum and Amaryllis are very common in Panhandle landscapes, there is a lesser-known genus of bulbs that is well worth your time and garden space, the Rainlily (Zephyranthes spp.).

Rainlily, aptly named for its habit of blooming shortly after summer rainfall events and a member of the Amaryllis family of bulbs, is a perfect little plant for Panhandle yards for several reasons.  The plant’s genus name, Zephyranthes – which translates to English as “flowers of the western winds”, hints at the beauty awaiting those who plant this lovely little bulb.  From late spring until the frosts of fall, Rainlily rewards gardeners with flushes of trumpet-shaped flowers in shades of white, pink, and yellow, with some hybrids offering even more exotic colors.  While these individual flowers typically only persist for a day or two, they are produced in “flushes” that last several days, extending the show.  Though Rainlily flowers are the main event for the genus, beneath the blooms, plants also offer attractive, grass-like, evergreen foliage.  These aesthetic attributes lend themselves to Rainlily being used in a variety of ways in landscapes, from massing for summer color ala Daylilies, to use around the edges of beds as a showy border like Liriope or other “border” type grassy plants.

Unknown Rainlily species blooming in a raised bed. Photo courtesy of Daniel Leonard.

Continuing along the list of Rainlily attributes, the genus doesn’t require much in the way of care from gardeners either.  Most species of Rainlily, including the Florida native Z. atamasca, have no serious pests and are right at home in full sun to part shade.  Once established, plants are exceedingly low-maintenance and won’t require any supplemental irrigation or fertilizer!  Some Rainlily species like Z. candida even make excellent water or ditch garden plants, preferring to have their feet wet most of the year – putting them right at home in the Panhandle this year.  And finally, all Zephyranthes spp. do very well in containers and raised beds also, adding versatility to their use in your landscape!

The one drawback of Rainlily is that they can be somewhat difficult to find for sale.  As these bulbs are an uncommon sight in most garden centers, to source a specific Zephyranthes species or cultivar, one is probably going to need to purchase from a specialty internet or mail-order nursery.  As with other passalong-type bulbs though, the absolute best and most rewarding way to obtain Rainlily is to get a dormant season bulb division from a friend or fellow gardener who grows them.  There are many excellent unnamed or forgotten Zephyranthes cultivars and seedlings flourishing in gardens across the South, waiting to be passed around to the next generation of folks who will appreciate them!

Even if you must go to some lengths to get a Rainlily in your garden, I highly recommend doing so!  You’ll be rewarded with years of low-maintenance summer color after the dreariest of rainy days and will be able to pass these “flowers of the western wind” on to the next gardening generation.  For more information on growing, sourcing, or propagating Rainlilies, check out this EDIS publication by Dr. Gary Knox of the UF/IFAS North Florida Research and Education Center (NFREC) or contact your local UF/IFAS Extension office!  Happy Gardening!

 

 

 

AUGUST What to Plant? What to Do?

AUGUST What to Plant? What to Do?

Native Gaillardia. Photo courtesy UF/IFAS.

The hottest days of the summer are here and you might be thinking, “There is no way something could survive this heat!”. You might also be wondering “What can I do in my landscape?” Well, you are correct – it is hot and there are not many plants that thrive in this type of weather, but the good news is we are at the end of the summer season and there are things we can begin to do to get ready for fall. It’s not too late to get the last of the summer vegetables going such as lima beans, cucumbers, eggplants, and peppers. Many cool season crops can also be planted by seed now and tomatoes will thrive going into the fall season. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida

There are some heat-tolerant annuals like vinca, gaillardia, bulbine, and coleus that can be planted now in the landscape. See Annuals. Any time of the year, even late summer, bulbs like Aztec Lily, Butterfly Lily, Walking Iris, and Spider Lily can be planted. See Bulbs for Florida. Not many herbs do well in our Florida sun this time of year, but Bay Laurel, Ginger, Mexican Tarragon, and Rosemary can be planted as transplants now but not as seeds just yet. See Herbs.

August and late summer is the time of year that you may be seeing damage in your lawns. This could be caused by insects, disease, or irrigation failure. It is important to determine the cause, so the proper remedy is used. Some ways to avoid lawn damage are checking your mower blades regularly and making sure they are sharp. Also only cut the top one third of the blade of grass to not stress it in the heat of the day. It is good practice to test your irrigation clock and have a rain sensor. Some municipalities in north Florida prohibit the application of fertilizer during the summer rainy season from June to September so check with your local extension office. See Insect Management in Your Florida Lawn

You can become more self-sufficient by growing your own healthy food in your backyard. Photo by Molly Jameson.

There are some other maintenance measures you can take in August to help your landscape and prepare for the fall season. If older palm fronds are yellowing, this could indicate a deficiency in magnesium or potassium. Talk to your local agent or visit your local store for an appropriate palm fertilizer. See Palm Nutrition and Fertilization.  Are you holding on to those beautiful fall mums or decorative Christmas poinsettias? Now is the time to pinch them back to allow time for buds to set for winter blooms. Finally, it is a good time to deadhead (remove old blooms) and fertilize flowering annuals and perennials. We’ve had substantial rain this summer, so keep in mind that the soil could be lacking nutrients. A soil test can give you data that indicates what you need for the up-and-coming growing season.

Information for this article can be found in the UF/IFAS EDIS publication: “North Florida Gardening Calendar” by Sydney Park Brown: ENH1190/EP451: North Florida Gardening Calendar (ufl.edu)

Video: Lilies in the Coastal South

Video: Lilies in the Coastal South

Lilies offer one of our most striking flowers in the garden.  Learn a few basics about growing lilies in your own garden with UF IFAS Extension Escambia County Master Gardener Volunteers.

So Many Irises for the Florida Garden

Irises by Vincent Van Gogh, 1889.

Have you noticed all of the blooming irises? Their striking shapes and colors grab my attention each time. Irises are named for the Greek word for rainbow and are often called flags. Irises, both true Iris and those with iris in the common name, are not only easy on the eyes, but also easy to grow in the Florida garden. North Florida gardeners have many varieties of iris to choose from, including those that prefer wet sites, drought-tolerant species, intricate hybrids, and native species.

All irises are in the plant family Iridaceae and have six flower petals; a lower set, called the sepals, or falls, and an upper set, known as standards, that are often upright. The base of the sepals, known as the signal, can have a variety of colors and patterns. Irises are clump forming plants with long, strap-shaped leaves. They need occasional dividing and propagate easy by rhizomes. Few pests bother them.

Here are a few common iris plants that grow well in our area.

 

African Iris blooming on January 2nd, 2018 in the Leon County Extension Office Demonstration Garden. Credit: Mark Tancig, UF/IFAS Extension Leon County.

African Iris (Dietes vegeta)

 

This non-native plant is not actually a true Iris but is a tough and versatile plant. Its sepals are bright white with a yellow signal. The standards are purple. This plant can be grown in full sun or part shade, from standing water to droughty conditions. It works nicely as a border or foundation planting. Flowers only last a few days but are produced throughout the year. We had one blooming in our Demonstration Garden through a cold snap this past January. Cold weather can cause leaves to turn brown or gray, requiring some maintenance to improve appearance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bearded Iris. Credit: Mark Tancig, UF/IFAS Extension Leon County.

Bearded Iris (Iris x germanica)

A non-native, true Iris, bearded irises are the fancy hybrids that can come in many different colors. The “bearded” refers to the many hairs along the signal. Bearded irises prefer sunny locations and bloom in spring.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iris versicolor. Credit: Mark Tancig, UF/IFAS Extension Leon County.

Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor and Iris virginica)

 

 

Two species of Iris go by the same common name, blue flag iris. These two are often misidentified in the nursery trade as well. Both have purple flowers that bloom in the spring, are native, and occur naturally in wetland areas. Gardener can have easy success with these in irrigated and/or rain gardens with some light shade. To tell the two apart requires a careful look at the lower sepals, or falls. Iris versicolor’s sepal has a greenish-yellow signal (base), surrounded by a white background with dark purple veins. The sepal of I. virginica has a bright yellow signal with little prominent veining. They also both have a 3-angled fruit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Louisiana iris hybrid. Credit: Mark Tancig, UF/IFAS Extension Leon County.

Louisiana Iris (Iris spp.)

 

 

The name Louisiana iris refers to five true Iris species – I. brevicaulis, I. fulva, I. giganticaerulea, I. hexagona, and I. nelsonii – that are native in and around Louisiana. They easily hybridize with each other and these hybrids have become popular garden cultivars. Louisiana iris prefer moist soils and full sun.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Walking Iris (Neomarica gracilis). Credit: Mark Tancig, UF/IFAS Extension Leon County.

Walking Iris (Neomarica spp.)

 

Another unofficial iris, most plants in the Neomarica genus share the same “walking” attribute. Small plantlets can develop at the top of the flower stalk and then fall over to start a new clump of plants. These do best in part shade to shade and have a long flowering period. They are somewhat cold tender so may die back but will return in the spring.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yellow Flag Iris (Iris pseudoacorus)

The invasive, exotic yellow iris. Credit: Ann Murray, UF/IFAS.

This non-native Iris is one that you want to keep out of the garden. Yellow flag iris is known to invade natural wetlands and has been designated invasive by the UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-Native Plants. It’s easily distinguished from the other irises listed above by its bright yellow flowers. If you have this iris, remove fruit and carefully dig out the rhizomes, place in a trash bag, and dispose of it in your solid waste bin.

 

For questions regarding iris identification or care, contact your local UF/IFAS Extension Office.

Beautiful Daffodils in Bloom

Daffodil bulbs under trees. Image credit Matthew Orwat

Daffodils are blooming in the UF/IFAS Leon County Extension Demonstration Garden. Daffodils, including paperwhites and narcissus, are in the Amaryllis family and have been cultivated for centuries. The Greeks and Romans admired the beautiful flowers and the plant’s scientific name, Narcissus, is shared with the Greek mythological character who couldn’t stop staring at his reflection. Many old homesites and historical sites in north Florida have daffodil bulbs that have continued to bloom since the early 1900’s. Daffodils can be seen in the winter to early spring and many varieties are hardy in north Florida.

While this is the time for enjoying their flowers, daffodils are planted in the fall. If you’ve caught yourself staring at the beautiful flowers and would like to plant them in your garden, you have time to prepare for next year. Daffodils can be planted once the soil has cooled and do best in sites with mostly sun, but a little shade is okay. Be sure to choose planting areas that don’t collect water. Locations with a slight slope are perfect.

Bulbs can be ordered from catalogs or purchased at local nurseries. Varieties (Division in parenthesis) good for our area include ‘Carlton’ (Large Cupped), ‘February Gold’ (Cyclamineus), ‘Trevithean’ (Jonquilla), ‘Erlicheer’ (Tazetta), and paperwhites (Tazetta).

Once the soil is cool (October to November), bulbs are planted four to six inches deep and should be well watered following planting and, if a dry winter, watered through flowering. Be careful not to overwater, as wet soil promotes rotting of the bulb. After flowering and warmer temperatures, the leaves will begin to fade. Do not remove leaves or flower stalks until completely brown and dry as they provide nutrition to the bulb for storage the next year.

After several years, the bulbs may be divided by digging and lifting the bulbs and separating those that easily break apart from each other. It is best to replant the divided bulbs immediately.

Interesting facts about the daffodil include:

The bulb has the ability to adjust itself in the soil to reach optimal soil depth and temperature.

The term ‘tazetta’ is thought to come from the Italian word for the small cups used for drinking espresso coffee. Next time you stare at the flowers, notice how they resemble a small cup in a saucer.

For more information on growing daffodils in Florida, visit edis.ifas.ufl.edu or contact your local UF/IFAS County Extension Office.