Citrus Survey for Homeowners

Citrus Survey for Homeowners

Are you a homeowner in Florida? Do you have citrus on your property? Consider helping the University of Florida/IFAS Extension by taking a survey!

This survey is part of a research project carried out by the UF/IFAS to gather information on citrus pests in residential settings in Florida. This survey is designated for Florida residents who have citrus on their property that are not intended for commercial use. The outcomes of this survey will serve to develop appropriate control methods against critical citrus pests for dooryard citrus. We kindly ask that you complete all questions on this survey which will take approximately 20 minutes.

Online Survey Software | Qualtrics Survey Solutions

For more information, please contact Dr. Xavier Martini- Principal Investigator, phone: (850) 875-7160 or e-mail at xmartini@ufl.edu

Survey for Citrus Homeowners

Survey for Citrus Homeowners

The University of Florida is conducting a survey among Florida homeowners that have citrus on their property. This survey is supported by USDA-NIFA and is about pests that might be found on citrus and how to manage them. The survey should take only 10 min and will help the University of Florida to develop an Extension program adapted to residential areas.

Thank you for your help!

Citrus: Bearing Branches. Image Credit Matthew Orwat, UF/IFAS

Citrus: Bearing Branches. Image Credit Matthew Orwat, UF/IFAS

Click here to take the survey

Alternatively copy and past the following link on your browser: https://ufl.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_ey3sRMQXyF7q8yW

To obtain more information on this survey, please contact:

Dr. Xavier Martini

University of Florida

(850) 875-7160

xmartini@ufl.edu

 

If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, please contact the UF IRB Office: call 352-392-0433.

IRB Study No.: IRB202200230

Survey for Citrus Homeowners

Citrus Canker on the Spread in NW Florida

Citrus canker has made its way to Escambia County and may be more widespread that we realize.  This bacterial disease was first seen in Northwest Florida almost 10 years ago in Gulf Breeze. Given time and the ease of transmission of this disease, we are now seeing affected citrus trees in both the east and west portions of Escambia County.

This disease is specific to citrus with grapefruit, lemon, and lime being the most susceptible to infection.  The disease can infect all above ground tissues and often enters through natural openings and wounds of leaves, stems, and fruit.  If you find an infection early in an isolated area of the tree, you can prune out and double bag the affected tissue for disposal.  Often times, the disease is noticed only after a considerable amount of tissue and fruit are affected making it difficult to keep the disease in check.

Since the bacteria is so easily transmitted through rain and wind, it is difficult to prevent movement during our frequent storm events. People can also spread the disease by movement of unregulated citrus trees, on equipment, and even on clothing.

Citrus canker lesions appear on both the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves. Photo by Beth Bolles, UF IFAS Extension Escambia County

Lower surface with citrus canker. Photo by Beth Bolles, UF IFAS Extension Escambia County

 

 

 

 

 

 

If you suspect a citrus in your landscape has canker, do not bring a sample to your Extension office for identification.  Take a photo of plant symptoms of upper and lower leaves, fruits, and stems so that your local Extension educators can assist with identification.  The University of Florida publication https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/PP323 has quality photos and descriptions of the different stages of citrus canker, along with photos of other citrus issues.

Stem lesions on grapefruit. Photo by Beth Bolles, UF IFAS Extension Escambia County.

The bad new for homeowners is that there is not a treatment to cure citrus canker.  If the infection is small (a few leaves or a branch), it may be possible to remove and dispose of the material, following proper sanitation guidelines. Homeowners may also suppress a small infection on fruit by using copper-based fungicides, applied at appropriate intervals. These fungicides only protect plant tissue for a short time by acting as a barrier to infection. See this UF publication for timing of copper sprays for fruit.

Once susceptible citrus are heavily infected, trees will have fruit and leaf drop, along with general decline and dieback.  At this stage of the disease, homeowners should strongly consider removing the tree.  If it can be burned on site in accordance with local burn laws, that keeps the material contained and may reduce disease transmission. Otherwise, all material should be double bagged and sent to a landfill. Do not compost any material onsite or at local composting facilities.  Be sure to follow disinfecting techniques outlined in the University of Florida publication https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/PP323 for tools, hands, and clothing.

Since management of citrus canker is so difficult, prevention is the best method to protect your tree.  If you are considering a citrus, choose a more resistant selection outlined in the UF publication, Table 2.  Always purchase a citrus from a certified nursery and follow state guidelines which prohibits all propagation of citrus, unless registered to do so.

Be Patient with Key Limes

Be Patient with Key Limes

Growing Key Limes in the home landscape is not only a fun and unique addition, but is also delicious – any way you slice them.

The key lime, Citrus aurantifolia, originated in southeast Asia. Genetically speaking, the key lime is likely a tri-hybrid cross between the “odd ball fruits”, known as citron, pummelo and a microcitrus species, Citrus micrantha. There is little commercial key lime production nowadays in Florida, but the fruit remains a very popular landscape option.

The key lime is a small, bushy tree that makes harvest and pruning a breeze. Like most citrus, it’s self-pollinating. The key lime is also an ever-bearing fruit, so there is no real seasonal harvest. The tree could technically bloom any month of the year. There are very few varieties, as trees mostly come from true seed or air layering.

Key Lime fruit at various degrees of ripeness. Photo courtesy of Ray Bodrey, UF/IFAS Extension Gulf County.

Climate is an important factor when deciding to plant a key lime. They are sensitive to cold temperatures, especially below freezing. For the Panhandle, it’s wise to keep key lime trees as patio citrus. In other words, keep the trees in pots so that they can be moved indoors for protection during the winter months.  In the ground, trees should be planted in an area where there is a significant wind block.  Once a few years have passed and tree has become more mature and acclimated to the environment, they may be able to survive on their own, though it is recommended to cover the tree under sub-freezing temperatures. However, it is important to remember that sunlight is a catalyst for citrus fruit production, be sure to plant the tree in an area with full sun.

The usual suspects of citrus insect pests apply to the key lime also. Citrus leaf miner and mites are the most common culprits. Horticultural and insecticidal oils will certainly help to combat these threats. For planting, key lime is well adapted to a variety of soil conditions in Florida. Be sure to water newly planted trees every other day for the first week and then one to two times a week for the first couple of months. Water periodically after that, making sure the soil doesn’t stay completely dry for long periods. A 6-6-6 fertilizer works great for the key lime. Please follow the fertilizer schedule found in the UF/IFAS EDIS publication, “Citrus Culture in the Home Landscape” by Robert E. Rouse and Mongi Zekri: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/HS/HS132/HS132-11822781.pdf

A final interesting thing about the key lime is the ripening stages of the fruit. Because key limes are ever-bearers, blooms can develop at sometimes widely varying times. This causes an uneven development of fruit across the tree. Be sure to wait until the fruit turns begins to turn yellow before harvest. That’s when it’s mature to eat!  Fruit can be stored for up to a week in the fridge or can be juiced and stored in the freezer for later use.

Please contact your local county Extension office for more information. Happy Gardening!

Information for this article can be found in the UF/IFAS EDIS publication, “Key Lime Growing in the Florida Home Landscape” by Jonathan H. Crane: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/CH092

UF/IFAS Extension is an Equal Opportunity Institution.

Landscape  Q & A

Landscape Q & A

On August 12, 2021, our panel answered questions on a wide variety of landscape topics. Maybe you are asking the same questions, so read on!

Ideas on choosing plants

What are some perennials that can be planted this late in the summer but will still bloom through the cooler months into fall?

Duranta erecta ‘Sapphire Showers’ or ‘Gold Mound’, firespike, Senna bicapsularis, shrimp plant, lion’s ear

Where can native plants be obtained?

Dune sunflower, Helianthus debilis. Photo credit: Mary Salinas UF/IFAS Extension.

Gardening Solutions: Florida Native Plants  – see link to FANN: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/ornamentals/native-plants.html

What are some evergreen groundcover options for our area?

Mondo grass, Japanese plum yew, shore juniper, ajuga, ferns such as autumn fern.

What are some ideas for partial morning sun butterfly attracting tall flowers to plant now?

Milkweed, salt and pepper plant, swamp sunflower, dune sunflower, ironweed, porterweed, and salt bush.

I’m interested in moving away from a monoculture lawn. What are some suggestions for alternatives?

Perennial peanut, powderpuff mimosa, and frogfruit.

We are new to Florida and have questions about everything in our landscape.

Florida-Friendly-Landscaping TM Program and FFL Web Apps: https://ffl.ifas.ufl.edu/

https://ffl.ifas.ufl.edu/resources/apps/

UF IFAS Gardening Solutions: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/

What are some of the top trends in landscaping today?

Houseplants, edible gardens, native plants, food forests, attracting wildlife, container gardening, and zoysiagrass lawns

Edibles

Artwork broccoli is a variety that produces small heads. Photo credit: Mary Salinas UF/IFAS Extension.

What vegetables are suitable for fall/winter gardening?

Cool Season Vegetables: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/edibles/vegetables/cool-season-vegetables.html

North Florida Gardening Calendar: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/EP451%20%20%20

Florida Vegetable Gardening Guide: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/vh021

How can I add herbs to my landscape?

Herbs in the Florida Garden: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/edibles/vegetables/herbs.html

My figs are green and hard. When do they ripen?

Why Won’t My Figs Ripen: https://www.lsuagcenter.com/profiles/rbogren/articles/page1597952870939

What is best soil for raised bed vegetable gardens?

Gardening in Raised Beds: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/EP472

And there are always questions about weeds

How can I eradicate cogongrass?

Chamber bitter is a troublesome warm season weed in our region. Photo credit: Brantlee Spakes Richter, University of Florida, Bugwood.org

Cogongrass: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/WG202

Is it okay to use cardboard for weed control?

The Cardboard Controversy: https://gardenprofessors.com/the-cardboard-controversy/

What is the best way to control weeds in grass and landscape beds?

Weed Management Guide for Florida Lawns: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/EP141

Improving Weed Control in Landscape Planting Beds: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/EP/EP52300.pdf

Landscape practices

Can ground water be brackish and stunt plants?

Reclaimed Water Use in the Landscape: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/ss545

How can I prevent erosion from rainwater runoff? 

Stormwater Runoff Control – NRCS: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/water/?cid=nrcs144p2_027171

Rain Gardens: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/design/types-of-gardens/rain-gardens.html

And https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/articles/rain-garden-manual-hillsborough.pdf

What is the best time of the year to propagate flowering trees in zone 8B?

Landscape Plant Propagation Information Page – UF/IFAS Env. Hort: https://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/database/lppi/

Which type of mulch works best on slopes greater than 3 percent?

Landscape Mulches: How Quickly do they Settle?: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/FR052

When should bulbs be fertilized?

Bulbs and More – UI Extension: https://web.extension.illinois.edu/bulbs/planting.cfm

Should I cut the spent blooms of agapanthus?

Agapanthus, extending the bloom time: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/ornamentals/agapanthus.html

http://blogs.ifas.ufl.edu/wakullaco/2020/10/07/extending-bloom-time/

Plant questions

Monarch caterpillar munching on our native sandhill milkweed, Asclepias humistrata. Photo credit: Mary Salinas, UF IFAS Extension.

I planted native milkweed and have many monarch caterpillars. Should I protect them or leave them in nature?

It’s best to leave them in place. Featured Creatures: Monarch Butterfly: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/IN/IN780/IN780-Dxyup8sjiv.pdf

How does Vinca (periwinkle) do in direct sun? Will it make it through one of our panhandle summers? Can I plant in late August?

Periwinkles  and  No more fail with Cora series: https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/ornamentals/periwinkles.html#:~:text=Plant%20your%20periwinkles%20where%20they,rot%20if%20irrigated%20too%20frequently.

Insect and disease pests

What to do if you get termites in your raised bed?

The Facts About Termites and Mulch: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/IN651

How to combat fungus?

Guidelines for ID and Management of Plant Disease Problems: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/mg442

Are there preventative measures to prevent diseases when the humidity is very high and it is hot?

Fungi in Your Landscape by Maxine Hunter: http://blogs.ifas.ufl.edu/marionco/2020/01/16/fungi-in-your-landscape/

 

If you missed an episode, check out our playlist on YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bp0HfdEkIQw&list=PLhgoAzWbtRXImdFE8Jdt0jsAOd-XldNCd

 

Plant Strawberries in Fall for Early Spring Delights

Plant Strawberries in Fall for Early Spring Delights

Strawberries growing on "plastic" to protect them from water splashed fungal spores found in soil. Image Credit: Matthew Orwat UF/IFAS Extension Washington County

Strawberries growing on “plastic” to protect them from water splashed fungal spores found in soil. Image Credit: Matthew Orwat UF/IFAS Extension Washington County

As the alternating cycles of sun, heat and rain shape our summer days, I start thinking about cooler times of the year, the fall planting season. One plant to consider planting in the fall are strawberries. Planting strawberries in the fall is really an exercise in preparation for bountiful production of fruit beginning in January and continuing into May and June. The following procedure will lead to a successful strawberry production if followed!

The best location for strawberry production provides well-drained, moist, sandy soil with substantial organic matter. It must not be too wet. pH should be between 5.5 and 6.5, which is considered slightly acidic.  A fertilizer scheme of 2 lbs. of a 10-5-10 fertilizer per 100 sqft of raised bed or 10 feet of row should be applied at pre-plant, with ¼ of the fertilizer over the top and the rest in a one-inch-deep band near the location of drip irrigation.

*DO NOT apply fertilizer directly below the plants, as the fertilizer may burn the young transplants.

This is a raised bed of strawberries, which has been filled with rich composted growing media. Image Credit: Matthew Orwat UF/IFAS Extension Washington County

Commonly, a preferred system is the development of a hill system, which is 6-8 inches high and 24 inches wide. Drip irrigation should be installed for best results, thus keeping the leaves free of irrigation water. This hill should be covered with weed barrier, such as grower’s polyurethane plastic to reduce weed growth and soil splashing onto leaves. Additionally, strawberries do well when planted in a raised bed. This system can still utilize weed barriers and drip irrigation but gives the gardener the added benefit of manipulation of the growing media. Growing media made up of compost and coconut coir works especially well for this and may be found at local large garden centers.

Short day cultivars that have been proven to do well for home gardeners in Northwest Florida production are Sweet Charlie and Camarosa and should be purchased certified disease free from a reputable nursery. Both dormant bare root and actively growing plug plants are available for purchase, but I have had best luck with actively growing plug transplants.

While strawberry plants can easily withstand our winter temperatures, fruit can suffer damage from frosts below 32 degrees Fahrenheit. The good news is that small row covers or “low tunnels” can be constructed to prevent fruit loss and encourage early fruiting.

When setting out the transplants:
  • Keep plants moist before planting
  • Spread roots out in fan-shape
  • Set plants in moist soil at the correct depth. Do not cover the plants crown with dirt or leave its roots exposed above the soil.
  • Space plants 12 to 18 inches apart.
  • Pack the soil firmly around the roots, then sprinkle with water. Overhead sprinkling may keep the tops from drying out until the roots can get established.

Homemade row cover for strawberries made of cow panels and sheets. Commercial row covers can be purchased using hoops and frost cloth. You can also make your own with pipes and bulk rolled frost cloth.

Homemade row cover for strawberries made of cow panels and sheets. Commercial row covers can be purchased using hoops and frost cloth. You can also make your own with pipes and bulk rolled frost cloth. Image Credit: Matthew Orwat UF/IFAS Extension Washington County

As stated above, strawberries should be mulched. Black polyethylene plastic mulch at 1 to 1½ mil thick is best (completely cover the top and sides of bed before planting). Be sure the bed is firm, formed correctly, moist, and fertilized adequately. Place soil on the edges of the plastic to hold it in place. Cut slits in the plastic for the transplants.

When using alternatives like straw, bark or other natural organic materials mulch to a depth of 1 to 2 inches, but do not completely cover the plant.

 

For more information, Please consult these references or contact your local extension agent:

 

Growing Strawberries in the Florida Home Garden

 

Strawberry Cultivars Recommended by UF / IFAS Extension Specialists 

 

The UF / IFAS Strawberry Plant Breeding Program