Don’t Commit Crape Murder

Don’t Commit Crape Murder

Pruning is one of the most controversial aspects of maintaining crapemyrtle. Traditionally, many crapemyrtles are routinely topped, leaving large branch and stem stubs. This practice has been called “crape murder” because of the potential impacts on the crapemyrtle health and structural integrity. Topping is the drastic removal of large-diameter wood (typically several years old), with the end result of shortening all stems and branches.

Hard pruning (topping) stimulates crapemyrtle sprouting from roots, upper stems, or the base of main stems.  If basal and root sprouts are not removed, one or more may form woody stems that eventually compete with existing main stems. These additional or competing stems may result in poor form and structure, such as stems that rub against each other.

Topping typically delays flowering up to one month compared to unpruned crapemyrtle. On some cultivars, topping also shorten the season of bloom. Long-stem sprouts emerge just below large-diameter cuts that result from topping. These sprouts usually develop into upright, unbranched stems that eventually flower, often bending under their own weight. Rain or wind storms can cause extreme bending and some will break because they are weakly attached to the main stem.

Topping removes large amounts of starches and other food reserves stored within branches. Topping dramatically reduces the size of the plant canopy, ultimately decreasing the plant’s ability to produce food (starches) through photosynthesis. The large branch stubs caused by topping result in large areas of exposed wood that allow access by insects and wood-rotting organisms, weakening the plant’s structure. Finally, topping results in many dead stubs throughout the tree.

Proper pruning may be needed, just like any other tree. Lower limbs of crapemyrtle are removed to increase clearance for pedestrians or vehicles. Stems are cut to increase branching. Other pruning may be conducted to direct growth away from structures, stimulate flowering, and remove spent flowers, seed capsules, and dead or damaged branches and twigs.

Properly placed, crapemyrtle is a low-maintenance plant needing little or no pruning. Problems with overgrown, misshapen, or misplaced crapemyrtle can be greatly reduced with proper selection of crapemyrtle cultivars, proper plant selection at the nursery, and proper placement in the landscape. For more information on cultivar selection go to: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mg266.

If pruning is necessary, use the following recommendations:

  • Pruning for safety may be done anytime. This may involve removing damaged or weak branches or pruning lower limbs for pedestrian and vehicle clearance and visibility.
  • Pruning to improve plant structure, redirect growth, or alter plant shape and appearance should occur when plants are leafless and dormant–typically December through February. Although this can be accomplished at any time, without leaves, the branching structure is clearly visible to more easily determine appropriate branches for pruning.
  • Prune to remove crossing or rubbing branches.
  • Prune dead, damaged, or diseased branches at the branch collar.
  • Remove vigorous branches growing toward the center of the canopy.
  • Severe pruning should be performed late in the dormant period. Pruning too early might stimulate new growth that could be damaged by low temperatures.

 

Arbor Day: An American-born Celebration

Arbor Day: An American-born Celebration

Arbor Day has a 145-year history, started in Nebraska by a nature-loving newspaper editor named J. Sterling Morton who recognized the many valuable services trees provide. The first Arbor Day was such a big success that Mr. Morton’s idea quickly spread nationwide–particularly with children planting trees on school grounds and caring for them throughout the year. Now, Arbor Day is celebrated around the world in more than 30 countries, including every continent but Antarctica. We humans often form emotional attachments to trees, planting them at the beginning of a marriage, birth of a child, or death of a loved one. Trees have tremendous symbolic value within cultures and religions worldwide, so it only makes sense that people around the world have embraced the idea of celebrating a holiday focused solely on trees.

Ancient trees like this live oak have an important place in our cultural history. Photo credit: Carrie Stevenson

In addition to their aesthetic beauty and valuable shade in the hot summers, trees provide countless benefits: wood and paper products, nut and fruit production, wildlife habitat, stormwater uptake, soil stabilization, carbon dioxide intake, and oxygen production.  New research is even showing that trees can communicate throughout a forest, sharing “information” and nutrients through a deeply connected network of roots and fungi that can increase the resiliency of an entire forest population. And if you’re curious of the actual dollar value of a single tree, the handy online calculator at TreeBenefits.com can give you an approximate lifetime value of a one growing in your own backyard.

While national Arbor Day is held the last Friday in April, Arbor Day in Florida is always the third Friday of January. Due to our geographical location further south than most of the country, our primary planting season is during our relatively mild winters. Trees have the opportunity during cooler months to establish roots without the high demands of the warm growing season in spring and summer.

To commemorate Arbor Day, many local communities will host tree giveaways, plantings, and public ceremonies. In the western Panhandle, the Florida Forest Service, UF/IFAS Extension, and local municipalities have partnered for several events, listed here. As the Chinese proverb goes, “The best time to plant a tree was twenty years ago. The second best time is now.”

For more information on local Arbor Day events and tree giveaways in your area, contact your local Extension Office or County Forester!

 

Common Live Oak Problems and Solutions

Common Live Oak Problems and Solutions

 

The Live Oak (Quercus virginiana) is one of the most iconic figures of the Deep South. Mentioning the words Live Oak invokes all sorts of romantic nostalgia of yesteryear and the reputation is not unearned. In fact, many Live Oaks still stand that were growing on American soil when the first English settlers set foot on Plymouth Rock. They are long-lived, picturesque trees that also happen to be nearly bulletproof in the landscape. Given these factors, it is not surprising that Live Oak is far and away the most common tree included in both residential and commercial landscapes in the Coastal South. However, even the venerable Live Oak is not without its problems; this article will discuss a few of the more common issues seen with this grand species.

The Angel Oak near Charleston, SC

The Angel Oak near Charleston, SC

Few conditions afflict live oak but when they do, improper planting or cultural practices are usually at play. Observing the following best management practices will go a long way toward ensuring the long-term health of a planted Live Oak:

  • Remember to always plant trees a little higher than the surrounding soil to prevent water standing around the trunk or soil piling up around it, both of these issues frequently cause rot to occur at the base of the tree.
  • If planting a containerized tree, remember to score the rootball to prevent circling roots that will eventually girdle the tree. If planting a B&B (Balled and Burlap) specimen, remember to remove the strapping material from the top of the wire basket, failure to do this can also result in the tree being girdled.

Live Oak has few insect pests but there are some that prove bothersome to homeowners. The following are two of the most common pests of Live Oaks and how to manage them:

Typical galling on Live Oak

Typical galling on Live Oak

 

Galls are cancerous looking growths that appear on the leaves and twigs of Live Oak from time to time and are caused by gall wasps that visit the tree and lay their eggs inside the leaf or stem of the plant. The larvae hatch and emerge from the galls the following spring to continue the cycle. These galls are rarely more than aesthetically displeasing, however it is good practice to remove and destroy gall infected stems/leaves from younger trees as gall formation may cause some branch dieback or defoliation. Chemical control is rarely needed or practical (due to the very specific time the wasps are outside the tree and active) in a home landscape situation.

  • Black Twig Borers can also be problematic. These little insects seldom kill a tree but their damage (reduction of growth and aesthetic harm) can be substantial. Infestations begin in the spring in Northwest Florida, with the female twig borer drilling a pen-head sized hole in a large twig or small branch and then laying her eggs in the ensuing cavity. She then transmits an ambrosia fungus that grows in the egg-cavity, providing food for the borer, other borer adults, and her offspring that take up residence and over-winter in the twig. The activity of the insects in the twig has an effect similar to girdling; the infected twig will rapidly brown and die, making removal and destruction of the infected branches a key component

 

In conclusion, though there are a few problems that can potentially arise with Live Oak, its premier status and continued widespread use in the landscape is warranted and encouraged. It should be remembered that, relative to most other candidates for shade trees in the landscape, Live Oak is extremely durable, long-lived, and one of most pest and disease free trees available. Happy growing!

Time to Plant Trees & Shrubs

The cooler weather in the wintertime makes it a great time to plant trees and shrubs. That is why Arbor Day in Florida is the third Friday in January. In 2016, that event is January 15.

Baldcypress growing at the edge of a pond. Photo:  Julie McConnell, UF/IFAS

Baldcypress growing at the edge of a pond. Photo: Julie McConnell, UF/IFAS

Start your planning now with doing a site assessment on your landscape, then choosing the right trees and shrubs for your particular environmental conditions.

Here are some great sites that offer online tools for finding just the right species:

Florida Tree Selector

The Florida-friendly Guide to Plant Selection & Landscape Design

Florida Native Plant Society Locator

And if you want to find out just how much your established trees are worth, use this National Tree Benefit Calculator!

 

For more information:

Planting Trees in the Landscape

Arbor Day Foundation: Florida

Start the Year Off Right — Plant a Tree!

Start the Year Off Right — Plant a Tree!

Planting a tree is an excellent way to insure clean air and water in the future.  Photo credit: Carrie Stevenson

Planting a tree is an excellent way to insure clean air and water in the future. Photo credit: Carrie Stevenson

Most of us begin a new year with resolutions–to exercise more, to eat right, to spend our time more productively–but few things have as many lasting impacts for the future as the simple act of planting a tree.

Arbor Day (which literally means, “Tree Day”) was founded in 1872 by J. Sterling Morton, a naturalist and journalist in Nebraska. By 1882, it was celebrated by thousands of schoolchildren nationwide, who planted trees and took care of them with their classmates. Today, millions of communities and schools celebrate Arbor Day all over the world. Trees provide endless benefits, including shade, recreation, food and building products, shade and wind protection, wildlife habitat, oxygen production and carbon dioxide uptake.

Arbor Day is typically celebrated in the United States on the last Friday of April, but as ideal tree-planting conditions differ by climate, each state has its own specific Arbor Day, as well. Winter is the ideal time to plant trees in Florida, because it allows roots to develop without expending energy on growing new leaves and shoots. Our state celebration this year is January 16th.

Many local communities in Florida hold special events around this time. Be sure to check with your local Extension office or Native Plant Society chapter to find out if they are offering free trees or public events this month. For more information on the best trees for your area, be sure to take the time to read “Native Trees for North Florida” or peruse the UF Environmental Horticulture web page.

 

Trees and Shrubs for All Year Interest

Trees and Shrubs for All Year Interest

Trees and shrubs often serve a distinct purpose in landscapes, other than to provide color. They are planted to provide shade, screen a view or noise, or to soften the hardscapes of the home.

With a little planning, we can have both beauty and function from trees and shrubs.  Add a few trees and shrubs that have color in different seasons and your landscape will always be interesting.

The added benefit of growing trees and shrubs is that they are low maintenance.  Once the plants are established in the landscape, they will require very little water and only an occasional application of a slow release fertilizer.  A good layer of an organic mulch around the plants will help conserve moisture, prevent weeds, and keep root temperatures regulated during our temperature extremes.  You may have to do a little pruning every year to remove any diseased, damaged, or severely crossing branches.

Here is a list of plants to give you garden interest throughout all seasons:

Winter color

  •  Taiwan cherry (Prunus campanulata) is an underutilized ornamental cherry for the coastal south.  Clusters of dark pink flowers cover the plant which grows about 20 feet.
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Taiwan cherry

  • Camellia japonica is widely used in landscapes, but still an excellent choice for winter color.  Careful selection of types will provide a garden with color from November through April.
  •  Red maple (Acer rubrum)  will provide color in both the late winter and fall.  Flowers are brilliant red in late winter and leaves begin turning red in late October.
  •  Other choices include Oakleaf hydrangea, Florida anise, Red buckeye, and Japanese magnolia

Spring

  • Fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus) can be in shrub or tree form and range in height from 10 – 20 feet.  Forms white clusters of showy fringe-like flowers in late winter and early spring before the leaves emerge.
Fringe Tree 2

Fringe tree

  •  Chinese fringe (Lorepetalum chinesis ‘Rubrum’) is a very popular shrub. Pink blooms are heaviest in the spring.  The plants can get up to 12 feet in height so plant it were it will not obstruct a view.
  •  Virginia sweetspire (Itea virginica) forms clusters of white flowers.  Plants offer purplish foliage in the fall.
  •  Other choices include Banana shrub, native azaleas, Indian hawthorn, and Deutizia,

Summer

  • Chaste tree (Vitex agnus castus) is a large shrub with fragrant leaves and spikes of purple flowers. Tolerates drought and develops interesting shape.
Vitex flowers

Chaste tree

  •  Loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus) is an evergreen tree that grows to 25-35 ft in height.  Large white flowers with yellow stamens resemble camellia blooms.
  •  Abelia spp has white flowers that appear over the entire plant.  It is attractive to butterflies .
  •  Other choices include Crape myrtle, Althea, Confederate rose, and Oleander

Fall

  • Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) will become a large tree over time.  In the fall the feathery leaves will turn orange-brown.  Good tree for both wet and dry areas.
  •  Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) a native that forms clusters of purple berries that line the stem.  Leaves turn yellow and provide fall interest as well.
  •  Cassia bicapsularis can reach 8-12 ft in height and will have bright yellow flowers that form in October and  persist until a freeze.

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    Cassia