One of the programs I focus on as a Sea Grant Extension Agent in Escambia County is restoring the health of our estuary.  One of the projects in that program is increasing the encounters with estuarine animals that were once common.  Currently I am focused on horseshoe crabs, diamondback terrapins, and bay scallops.  Horseshoe crabs and bay scallops were more common here 50 years ago.  We are not sure how common diamondback terrapins were.  We know they were once very common near Dauphin Island and are often found in the Big Bend area, but along the emerald coast we are not sure.  That said, we would like to see all of them encountered more often.

Horseshoe crabs breeding on the beach.
Photo: Florida Sea Grant

 

There are a variety of reasons why species decline in numbers, but habitat loss is one of the most common.  Water quality declined significantly 50 years ago and certainly played a role in the decline of suitable habitat.  The loss of seagrass certainly played a role in the decline of bay scallops, but overharvesting was an issue as well.  In the Big Bend region to our east, horseshoe crabs are also common in seagrass beds and the decline of that habitat locally may have played a role in the decline of that animal in our bay system.

 

Salt marshes are what terrapins prefer.  We have lost a lot of marsh due to coastal development.  Unfortunately, marshes often exist where we would like houses, marinas, and restaurants.  If the decline of these creatures in our bay is a sign of the declining health of the system, their return could be a sign that things are getting better.

Seagrass beds have declined over the last half century.
Photo: Rick O’Connor

Salt marshes have declined due to impacts from coastal development.
Photo: Molly O’Connor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For over 10 years we have been conducting citizen science monitoring programs to monitor the frequency of encounters of these creatures.  All three are here but the increase in encounters has been slow.  An interesting note was the fact that many locals had not heard of two of them.  Very few knew what a horseshoe crab was when I began this project and even fewer had heard of a terrapin.  Scallops are well known from the frequent trips locals make to the Big Bend area to harvest them (the only place in the state where it is legal to do so), but many of those were not aware that they were once harvested here.

 

I am encouraged when locals send me photos of either horseshoe crabs or their molts.  It gives me hope that the animal is on the increase.  Our citizen science project focuses on locating their nesting beaches, which we have not found yet, but it is still encouraging.

Horseshoe crab molts. Photo UF/IFAS Communications

Mississippi Diamondback Terrapin (photo: Molly O’Connor)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Volunteers surveying terrapin nesting beaches do find the turtles and most often sign that they have been nesting.  The 2022 nesting season was particularly busy and, again, a good sign.

 

It is now time to do our annual Scallop Search.  Each year we solicit volunteers to survey a search grid within either Big Lagoon or Santa Rosa Sound.  Over the years the results of these surveys have not been as positive as the other two, but we do find them, and we will continue to search.  If you are interested in participating in this year’s search, we will be conducting them during the last week of July.  You can contact me at the Escambia County Extension Office (850-475-5230 ext.1111) or email roc1@ufl.edu or Chris Verlinde at the Santa Rosa County Extension Office (850-623-3868) or email chrismv@ufl.edu and we can set you up.

Bay scallops need turtle grass to survive.
Photo: UF IFAS

Volunteers participating in the Great Scallop Search.
Photo: Molly O’Connor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Final note…

Each June I camp out west somewhere and each year I look for those hard-to-find animals.  After 10 years of looking for a mountain lion, I saw one this year.  Finding these creatures can happen.  Let’s hope encounters with all three become more common in our bay.

Latest posts by Rick O'Connor (see all)