It’s always fun to add new plant to the landscape. And it’s even more fun to propagate your own plant material. The question is, what plant propagation method is best? The answer depends on a number of factors such as:
- How much time and money is available?
- Is a uniform crop desired or is trait variation preferred?
- What is the plant species being propagated?
Plants can be propagated either by seed (sexual propagation) or by segments of vegetative material (asexual propagation). Sexual propagation takes far less time and effort because new plants are being started from the seeds (offspring) of parent plants. This type of propagation promotes genetic diversity because offspring may not have the exact characteristics of the parent plants. Sexual propagation increases the possibility of hybrid vigor, which is the improved quality of plant material to that of parent plants. Asexual propagation usually takes more time, but generally ensures that propagated plants will maintain the same characteristics as the parent plant. For some species it may be the only way to pass on desired traits to subsequent generations and it may be the only way to propagate certain species. A plant produced vegetatively can become larger than a plant produced by see in the same amount of time.
Tips for Successful Sexual Propagation
- Seed Collection – Seeds should be collected when fruit is ripe, just before they fall to the ground. In general, seeds should be cleaned, dried, and stored at 40 degrees Fahrenheit (in a refrigerator). However, palm seeds should be planted immediately after harvesting and cleaning.
- Seed Dormancy – Some seeds have thick seed coats the inhibit germination. Some seeds need to be scarified (breaking of the seed coat) and/or stratified (stored in a specific environment) in order to germinate.
- Seed Sowing – Seeds can be germinated in flats or other suitable containers in a seed starting media. Seeds should be planted at a depth of two to three times their diameter, but no deeper than 3 inches. Cycad seeds should be planted just below the medium surface.
Seeds stored in an envelope. Photo Credit: University of Florida/IFAS
Tips for Successful Asexual Propagation – In general, asexual propagation is the propagation of plant material from cuttings of stems, leaves, and/or roots.
- Rooting Hormones – Increase rooting percentage, hasten root initiation, increase the number of roots per cutting, and increase root uniformity. Auxin based rooting hormones (Indolebutyric acid (IBA) and Naphthalenacetic acid (NAA)) are available in dry or liquid forms. It is important to use the correct concentration for the particular plant species because over application can cause damage to cutting base.
- Sticking Cuttings – Cuttings should be stuck in the medium only deep enough to support the cuttings and hold them upright (1/2″ to 1″ deep).
- Post-Rooting Care – Fertilization should be applied as soon as roots emerge from the cuttings. However, overfetilization can increase soluble salts and burn roots.
Examples of Asexual Propagation
- Softwood Cuttings – Taken from woody plants usually three to four weeks after a new flush of growth. Commonly propagated species using this method include: crape myrtle; magnolia; oleander; azalea; jasmine; and boxwood.
- Semihardwood Cuttings – Similar to softwood cuttings, but the lower portion of the cutting has become lignified (woody). Usually taken from new shoots six to nine weeks after a flush of growth. Commonly propagated species using this method include: camellia; pittosporum; junipers; and some hollies.
- Hardwood Cuttings – Taken from the previous season’s growth, just before or during the dormant period. Commonly propagated species using this method include narrow-leaved evergreens and deciduous species during the dormant season after leaves have dropped.
- Leaf Cuttings – Comprised of only the leaf blade or the leaf blade and petiole (leaf stalk). Cuttings are stuck upright in the propagation medium with the basal end (petiole end) of the leaf inserted into the propagation medium. Commonly propagated species using this method include begonias and peperomias.
- Root Cuttings – Taken in late winter or early spring from two to three-year-old plant material. Plants propagated by root cuttings may not reproduce true to type if they are budded or grafted. Commonly propagated species using this method include: plumbago; bayberry; oakleaf hydrangea; and yucca.
Plants being propagated by leaf cuttings. Photo Credit: University of Florida/IFAS
This article provides only a brief overview of propagation methods and techniques. For more information on plant propagation please visit University of Florida Plant Propagation Glossary or Plant Propagation Techniques for the Florida Gardener. Please be advised that some plant material is patented and it is illegal to propagate patented material without written authorization or licensing of the patent holder. If it is patented, a notation of patent number will be on the tag.
No previous experience or accreditation it required to be a landscaper in the state of Florida. So when homeowners are searching for service providers, it is important that they question potential companies about their skills. One good measure is completion of voluntary certifications such as the Florida Nursery, Growers and Landscape Association (FNGLA) Certified Horticulture Professional (FCHP). The FCHP program has been the industry’s standard for measuring horticulture and landscape knowledge since 1984. The training is also useful for property managers, homeowner associations and retail garden center employees, or anyone that wants to know more about Florida’s plants and their care.
Plants are complex and variable living things that range from microscopic to the largest of living organisms. With steady population growth in the state of Florida, environmental damage risks created by the use of improper products and practices has continually risen. State and federal natural resource protection agencies have restricted certain horticultural practices, as well as, fertilizer and pesticide application. It takes scientific knowledge to maintain lawns and landscapes, not just a “green thumb” in order to keep plants healthy while reducing contamination to the soil, air and water that we all need.
The Florida Certified Horticulture Professional training covers 16 areas, including identification, fertilization, irrigation, pest management, safety and business practices. Lecture and hands-on activities are utilized at each session. The 70-hour course will enhance anyone’s knowledge and will provide the basis for professionals to deliver a skilled service to clientele.
If you are a green industry worker or a concerned citizen interested in attending a FCHP preparatory course, there is an opportunity here in Crestview. Beginning Thursday, January 16, 2020 and continuing for 10 weeks to March 19, 2020, the Okaloosa County Extension office will be providing training for $175, which included the newest hard copy manual. Contact Sheila Dunning, 850-689-5850, email@example.com for more information.
Scale insects on a cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto). Photo Credit: Matt Lollar, University of Florida/IFAS Extension – Santa Rosa County
This week I was on a couple site visits to look on some cabbage palms (Sabal palmetto) and some banana shrubs (Michelia figo). The palms had a white, waxy substance on their frond petioles and the banana shrubs had white specs on the tops of their leaves. Upon further investigation, I realized the waxy substance and specs were both different species of scales. Scale insects are serious pests of a number of ornamental plants. Here in Florida there are 13 different families of scales with the most common being armored scales, soft scales, and mealybugs. Scales have piercing-sucking mouthparts which they use to siphon fluids from the leaves, stems, and sometimes roots of many ornamental plants. Heavy infestations cause extensive leaf yellowing, premature leaf drop, branch dieback, and eventually plant death.
The life cycle of a scale begins with eggs being laid beneath wax coverings or beneath the adult female. Eggs typically hatch in 1 to 3 weeks. The newly hatched nymphs, called crawlers, move around a plant until they find a spot to feed. Once a feeding site is located, their piercing sucking mouthparts are inserted into the plant and the crawlers begin to feed and grow. The males of many scale species develop wings as adults and fly to other plants to reproduce.
Magnolia white scales on a banana shrub (Michelia figo). Photo Credit: Matt Lollar, University of Florida/IFAS Extension – Santa Rosa County
Armored scales get their armor by secreting a waxy covering over their bodies that is not attached. The scale lives under this covering and uses it as a protection to feed under. Armored scales can be almost any color or shape and range anywhere from 1/16 to 1/8 inch in diameter. For females, these shapes range from circular to oval to long and slender. The males typically have coverings that are more elongate and smaller than the females. As adults, the males are tiny, winged, gnat-like insects and are rarely seen.
Gloomy scale (Melanaspis tenebricosa) with armored covering removed. Photo Credit: A. G. Dale, University of Florida/IFAS
Similar to armored scales, soft scales secrete a waxy covering, but it is attached to their bodies. Soft scales can be a number of colors, shapes, and sizes and range anywhere from 1/8 to 1/2 inch in diameter. Their shapes vary from spherical to nearly flat.
Population of adult and immature tuttle mealybugs (Brevennia rehi) on a blade of zoysiagrass. Photo Credit: Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida/IFAS
Mealybugs are soft-bodied insects that possess a covering of flocculent, white, waxy filaments. They are about 1/8 inch in length and usually pinkish or yellowish in color. Mealybugs have piercing-sucking mouthparts which they use to siphon fluids from the leaves, stems, and sometimes roots of many ornamental plants. Mealybug damage produces discolored, wilted, and deformed leaves.
Scale and Mealybug Management
- Cultural Control – Plant inspection prior to purchase or installation is the first line of defense against a scale or mealybug population. Make sure to inspect the undersides of leaves and plant stems. Infested sections of plants can be pruned and plant material should be cleaned from the planting area and discarded. Also, you can increase air flow and decrease humidity by proper installation and pruning. Over-fertilizing can also increase pest populations.
Larva of a brown lacewing. Credits: Lyle Buss, University of Florida.
- Biological Control – Predators, such as ladybugs and green lacewings, are usually present in large enough numbers to suppress scales and mealybugs to a desirable threshold. However, broad-spectrum insecticides and bad weather can reduce predator numbers. Look for signs of predation by inspecting dead scales for jagged holes in their waxy coatings. If predation signs are present, use more selective chemical controls and oils as opposed to broad-spectrum products.
- Chemical Control – Timing is everything when it comes to managing scale and mealybug insects. Crawler activity is more pronounced with the flush of new plant growth in the spring. Before application, prune infested plant parts off first to promote greater penetration of insecticides into the foliage. Dormant Oils are often used in the winter to smother scale insects. These are good choices to implement because they don’t harm non-target or beneficial insects. Care must be taken to read the label and use them at the correct temperature, since use in hot weather may burn foliage. Contact products (acephate, bifenthrin, carbaryl, etc.) must be applied to inhibit the crawler stages of these insects and systemic products (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, etc.) can be used on the sessile growth stage. Plants should be sprayed thoroughly to the point of drip or “run off” from leaves, twigs, and stems. Repeated applications may still be necessary even if the timing is right, as crawler populations are often large and crawlers like to hide under old waxy scales. Systemic drenches are also a viable option. With good spray coverage, horticultural oils can kill scales at all stages of growth. Refer to the product label for phytotoxicity and temperature guidelines. Even after successful treatment, the outer coatings of the scales may remain on the plant material for weeks, which can be unsightly. The best way to determine if scales are dead is to squeeze them. They will be dry when squeezed if they are dead and they will ooze liquids if they are living (they were at least alive to the point of being squashed).
For insect identification and additional information on scale control, please see:
A Guide to Scale Insect Identification
UF/IFAS Featured Creatures
Your County Extension Office
Gardeners are always fighting the endless weeds that pop up in landscape and flower beds. When homeowners put in a new landscape bed and want to prevent future weed invasions, many think that putting down landscape fabric is a great way to keep the weeds from emerging and protect the newly planted trees, shrubs or perennials.
An example of failure of landscape fabric to control weeds less than 2 years after planting. Note the peeking through at the edges. Photo credit: Mary Salinas, UF/IFAS Extension.
Is Landscape fabric a good choice? Why or why not?
If landscape fabric is not covered up, sunlight will degrade the fabric. When mulch is placed on top of the fabric (and we all do want to cover it up – the fabric is not very attractive) the mulch breaks down into soil. Inevitably, weed seeds blow in and settle and germinate and grow on top of landscape fabric. And here you are with a weed problem. Weeds also find their way into the openings cut for desirable plants and along the edge of the fabric.
Landscape fabric is porous when put in place to allow water to pass through, but as time passes, the pores can get clogged and water penetration is restricted – rain and irrigation runs off and the plants you meant to protect are not getting the water they need.
Maybe the worst effect is that the landscape fabric creates unfavorable soil conditions. A healthy soil is key to good plant health. One thing soil needs to have is an exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the soil and the atmosphere. Recent studies from Washington State University demonstrated that gas movement between the soil and the atmosphere is restricted about 1,000 times more when landscape fabric is present than when areas have only wood mulch.
So, if landscape fabric is not a good choice, what is?
Mulch made from wood, bark, fallen leaves and pine needles. See Gardening Solutions: Mulch for sustainable ideas.
For more information:
Improving Weed Control in Landscape Planting Beds
2019 Panhandle Fruit and Vegetable Conference: Seeking to Bridge the Agricultural Gap
Join UF/IFAS Extension on October 2 and 3 for the 2019 Panhandle Fruit and Vegetable Conference. Not only will participants get the opportunity to learn about some of the most current innovations in fruit, nut, and vegetable production; marketing and business; and alternative enterprises in the southeast; they will also have the pleasure of hearing the keynote address from Dr. Cary Rivard, an Associate Professor, Extension Specialist, and Director of the Kansas State Research and Extension Center.
The 2019 Panhandle Fruit and Vegetable Conference keynote speaker is Dr. Cary Rivard, an Associate Professor, Extension Specialist, and Director of the Kansas State Research and Extension Center.
Dr. Cary Rivard knows the horticultural and agricultural industries well, as he grew up helping his parents operate a greenhouse business in Kansas City, Missouri. Embracing his family roots, he received his Bachelor of Science degree in agricultural science and biology from Truman State University and his Master of Science and doctorate degrees in plant pathology from North Carolina State University.
But Dr. Rivard knows not everyone gets to grow up witnessing the importance of the agricultural industry firsthand, nor does everyone study agricultural sciences in pursuit of educational degrees. Therefore, throughout Dr. Rivard’s career, he has sought projects that work to connect urban communities with agriculture. As we all know, technological innovations in the 21st century have connected communities in more ways than we could have ever imagined. Yet, it seems a disconnect has arisen among the people in these communities and the food they eat and the farmers who grow that food. But Dr. Rivard sees this disconnect as opportunity. He knows it is agricultural and horticultural leaders – both university specialists and farmers – who can bridge the gap between urban communities and the agricultural products on which they, knowingly or unknowingly, truly rely.
At the Panhandle Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Dr. Rivard will discuss his mission to connect urban communities and agriculture, including his work coordinating the Growing Growers Kansas City program, which provides education to new and experienced growers through farm apprenticeships and an annual workshop series. In addition to speaking as the 2019 Panhandle Fruit and Vegetable Conference keynote speaker, Dr. Rivard will also present one of the conference sessions, where he will discuss his effort to integrate crop diversity and crop rotations into high tunnel production systems.
Register to attend the UF/IFAS Extension 2019 Panhandle Fruit and Vegetable Conference and Post-Conference Tour on Eventbrite (https://panhandlefv2019.eventbrite.com). The main conference will be held on October 2 at the Emerald Coast Convention Center in Fort Walton Beach, Florida. The post-conference tour on October 3 will be a great chance to chat with farmers, and it kicks-off with breakfast at the Emerald Coast Convention Center. Participants will then ride together by bus to tour local farms, enjoy lunch, and be returned to the Convention Center by 3 p.m.
A couple weeks ago, I was on a site visit to check out some issues on Canary Island Date Palms. The account manager on the property requested a site visit because he thought the palms were infested with scale insects. He noticed the issue on a number of the properties he manages and he was concerned it was an epidemic. From a distance, lower fronds were yellowing from the outside in and the tips were necrotic. These are signs of potassium deficiency with possible magnesium deficiency mixed in.
Transitional leaf showing potassium deficiency (tip) and magnesium deficiency (base) symptoms. Photo Credit: T.K. Broschat, University of Florida/IFAS Extension
Nutrient deficiencies are slow to correct in palm trees. It’s much easier to prevent deficiencies from occurring by using a palm fertilizer that has the analysis 8N-2P2O5-12K2O+4Mg with micronutrients. Even if the palms are part of a landscape which includes turf and other plants that require additional nitrogen, it is best to use a palm fertilizer with the analysis previously listed over a radius at least 25 feet out from the palms. However, poor nutrition wasn’t the only problem with these palms.
Upon closer look, the leaflets were speckled with little bumps. Each bump had a little white tail. These are the fruiting structures of graphiola leaf spot also known as false smut.
Graphiola leaf spot (false smut) on a Canary Island Date Palm. Photo Credit: Matt Lollar, University of Florida/IFAS Extension – Santa Rosa County
Graphiola leaf spot is a fungal leaf disease caused by Graphiola phoenicis. Canary Island Date Palms are especially susceptible to this disease. Graphiola leaf spot is primarily an aesthetic issue and doesn’t cause much harm to the palms infected. In fact, the nutrient deficiencies observed in these palms are much more detrimental to their health.
Graphiola leaf spot affects the lower fronds first. If the diseased, lower fronds are not showing signs of nutrient deficiencies then they can be pruned off and removed from the site. All naturally fallen fronds should be removed from the site to reduce the likelihood of fungal spores being splashed onto the healthy, living fronds. A fungicide containing copper can be applied to help prevent the spread of the disease, but it will not cure the infected fronds. Palms can be a beautiful addition to the landscape and most diseases and abiotic disorders can be managed and prevented with proper pruning, correct fertilizer rates, and precise irrigation.